The Global Financial Crisis Essay
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In 2008, the world experienced a tremendous financial crisis which is rooted from the U.S housing market. Moreover, it is considered by many economists as one of the worst recessions since the Great Depression in 1930s. After bringing a huge effect on the U.S economy, the financial crisis expanded to Europe and the rest of the world. It ruined economies, crumble financial corporations and impoverished individual lives. For example, the financial crisis has resulted in the collapse of massive financial institutions such as Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Lehman Brothers and AIG. These collapses not only influenced own countries but also international scale. Hence, the intervention of governments by changing and expanding the monetary…show more content…
An increase in loan packaging, marketing and incentives encouraged borrowers to undertake difficult mortgages so they believed that they would be able to refinance quickly at more favourable terms. People borrowed money to buy the house and then expected the price to rise and sold so that they could pay off the debt which owed to the bank and demanded a new loan to buy another house. However, once the interest rate began to rise and house’s price dropped in 2007, refinancing became more difficult and banks could not collect their mortgages.
Besides, low interest rates and large inflows of foreign funds created easy credit conditions for years before the crisis and that simulated the boom in housing construction (Steverman and Bogoslaw, 2008). Moreover, easy credit and money inflow greatly contributed to U.S housing bubble and the rise of house’s price.
In relation to the increase in house’s price, the rise of financial agreements such as mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and collateralized debt obligations (CDO) encouraged investors to invest in the U.S housing market (Krugman, 2009). When housing price declined in the U.S, many financial institutions that borrowed and invested in subprime mortgage reported losses. In addition, the fall of housing price resulted in default and foreclosure and that began to exhaust consumer’s wealth and
The Global Economic Crisis Essay
In the late 2000s, the World suffered from a big global economic crisis which caused “the largest and sharpest drop in global economic activity of the modern era”, in which “most major developed economies find themselves in a deep recession”, according to McKibbin and Stoeckel (1). Because its consequences have a very big impact to the whole world, many economists and scientist have tried to find the causes of the crisis; and some major causes have been emphasized are greed, the defection of the free market system, and the lack of prudent regulation and supervision. This essay will focus on the global imbalances, one of the most important causes of the current economic crisis.
Many researchers have pointed out that the global imbalances are the root of the recent financial crisis. Portes claims that “the underlying problem in international finance over the past decade has been global imbalances, not greed, poor incentive structures, or weak financial regulation, however egregious and important these may be.” (2). According to him, the global imbalances lead to “the increasing in dispersion of current account”, which “puts a burden on financial systems to intermediate.”
In 1996, the US current account and emerging market plus developing country current account were each about zero. In 2008, US current account was in deficit by $ 600 bn, the emerging market/developing country current account in surplus by $ 900 bn. (sect. 1.1)
Moreover, the global imbalances also make capital flowing incorrectly, from developing countries to advanced countries, from advanced countries to other advanced countries. This makes developing countries with fast productivity growth show capital outflows and vice versa, leads to the surplus of developing countries, and increases the rate of deficit of developed countries. For example, China, a developing country, has been considered as one of the countries with biggest surplus for a long time, while the US, on the other hand, the developed country with highest rate of deficit. In general, the developing and developed countries together make a financial ecosystem that when a member problem, the whole system will be collapsed rapidly. McKibbin and Cagliarini gave a good example here:
Rising demands from China (and, to some extent, India), plus a booming world economy saw commodity prices rise across oil, minerals and food from late 2004 to late 2007. The shock to the global economy from this commodity price boom was as big as the first oil shock in the 1970s. (qtd. in McKibbin and Stoeckel 5).
As a consequence, the global imbalances contribute...
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