Terrorism In Pakistan Essay With Outline Depot

Corruption in Pakistan is widespread,[1] particularly in the government and lower levels of police forces.[2] Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country 117th place out of 180 countries[3] Pakistan saw a significant improvement in its statistics in 2013 when its ranking improved by 12 indices compared to its previous rankings[4] – 139 out of 174 in 2012,[5] 134 out of 182 in 2011,[6][7] 143 out of 178 in 2010,[8] and 139 out of 180 in 2009.[9]

While Pakistan has had a problem of corruption since it came into being. The change in regimes between military and civilian institutions due to three different successful coups have also weakened the anti-corruption institutions. This may also be noted that a significant improvement in corruption in Pakistan has not occurred either in civilian government or in military government. Recently, Pakistan has been doing better in eradicating corruption than previous years but still there's a long road ahead. In 2017, Pakistan's prime minister Nawaz Sharif was declared ineligible to hold office by supreme court of Pakistan according to the constitution of Pakistan due to corruption and illegal money stashed abroad by him which surfaced through the famous Panama Papers.

There is a growing need to reform accountability and anti-corruption policies at higher levels within the state government.[11]

Brief history[edit]

"Corruption is a curse in India and amongst Muslims, especially the so-called educated and intelligentsia. Unfortunately, it is this class that is selfish and morally and intellectually corrupt. No doubt this disease is common, but amongst this particular class of Muslims it is rampant."

— Pakistan founder Jinnah's letter to Ispahani,
6 May 1945[12]

The Dominion of Pakistan was created as a result of the Pakistan Movement in 1947. Upon gaining independence, Pakistan inherited a strong bureaucracy and army from the British Raj. There has since been no major change in this bureaucratic set up since it was first implemented by British, albeit reforms were proposed by the Musharraf regime in 2007. This has led many to speculate that "corruption has seeped into the higher echelons of bureaucracy" where "corruption cases are [mostly] reported against irregular and ex-cadre appointments".[13] It was by the late 1960s that the bureaucracy started being portrayed as an "instrument of oppression".[14] In multiple reports published by the World Bank, the Pakistani bureaucracy was seen as being rife with corruption, inefficient and bloated in size with an absence of accountability and resistant to change.[15][16][17][18]

Bureaucracy and secession of East Pakistan: 1954–1971[edit]

The bureaucratic influence was strong in the western provinces of Pakistan while the eastern province retained a majority of the population.[19] On 22 November 1954, bureaucratic administrators moved a resolution to merge the four western provinces into a single unit called West Pakistan. This led to public outcry in East Pakistan who felt that they were being misrepresented and systematically marginalised by the land-owning Punjabi Muslim elites who enjoyed higher bureaucratic positions at the time.[20] This led to the secession of East Pakistan into the separate nation state of Bangladesh and lay witness to the corrupt malpractices of the Punjabi elite in West Pakistan. Punjabis argued that East Pakistan's majority was a consequence of the high percentage of Bengali Hindus in the province[21] who were not involved in the state's decision-making processes. Thus, the Punjabi landowners remained largely unrepentant of their desires to "[secure] their own hegemony" leading to the loss of the eastern province in 1971.[22][23]

Nationalisation politicises economic planning: 1973–1977[edit]

After Zulfikar Ali Bhutto came into power in 1973, he introduced a planned economic system to revitalise the stagnant economy. This led to the introduction of the nationalisation programme bringing entire private industrial corporations under the government ownership.[24] In 1974, Bhutto cancelled the fourth five-year plans bypassing the recommendations of the Planning Commission, focusing entirely on broadening government control over private business enterprises. In doing so, Bhutto's government began the politicisation of economic planning.

Political interference opened doors for corrupt political practices to seep into the nation's economic planning processes. The nationalisation programme badly affected the reputation of the Pakistan Peoples Party. Accumulated losses of up to Rs 254 million were reported with several instances of over-staffing and inefficient productivity in heavy mechanical industries.[25] By 1976, the state had been hijacked by group and individuals trying to accumulate wealth by redistributing resources from public enterprises to private individuals. Public enterprises "became a device to extend political patronage to those that the regime favoured, to pay political debts, or to accumulate power".[26]

Denationalisation and political favouritism: 1978–1988[edit]

Bhutto's nationalisation programme lost its appeal towards the end of his government's term and the demand for denationalisation gained more currency. The successive government of military chief and presidentMuhammad Zia-ul-Haq released a whitepaper that led to the creation of a commission under Pakistan Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation (PICIC) to reverse earlier nationalisation efforts.[27] Not much was achieved in this regard and only three industries, including future prime minister Nawaz Sharif's conglomerate Ittefaq Group of Industries, were ever denationalised and returned to their owners. Many argue that Sharif was favoured in this process because he was a political protégé of the military dictator at the helm.[28][29]

Unprecedented political corruption: 2008–2013[edit]

In 2012, Transparency International (TI) calculated that Pakistan had lost more than Rs 8.5 trillion (US$ 94 billion) in corruption, tax evasion and bad governance in the PPP-led coalition government from 2008 to 2013, and from 2013 to 2017 while Nawaz Sharif in power have severe allegations of corruption. Adil Gillani, an advisor for TI Pakistan observed that if Pakistan checks the menace of corruption and ensures good governance, it would not require a single penny from the outside world. The 2008–2013 PPP-led coalition government is criticised as being the most corrupt in the country's history.[30] The free and powerful local media in Pakistan exposed various cases of corruption during the government's tenure including cases of bribery and corruption in government-owned enterprises like Pakistan International Airlines[31] and Pakistan Railways.[32]

On 29 March 2012, a civilian resident of Johar Town Lahore, Tariq Ahmed, filed a court petition in the Lahore High Court, seeking to hear the case of disqualification of prime ministerYousaf Raza Gillani.[33] The plea was filed in the High Court in which the petitioner took the stance that "Fauzia Gillani— spouse of prime minister Gillani received loans of millions of rupees from the Agriculture Development Bank Ltd (ADB) and the National Bank of Pakistan for the two mega-corporations owned by the Gillani family of which Fauzia Gillani served both megacorporations as executive director. None of the loans of millions of rupees were paid back to the banks.[33] When the disqualification petition was put to rest by the ruling of the Speaker of the National AssemblyDr Fehmida Mirza citing that the petition did not hold ground, Gillani was convicted on the charges of Contempt of Court. Gillani became Pakistan's first prime minister to be convicted while holding office[34] and was later sentenced and disqualified. Gillani is prudently criticised for a prolonged era of stagflation, in which fundamental economic problems were ignored, government was mismanaged and corruption was endemic.

Anti-corruption efforts[edit]

Prevention of Corruption Acts: 1947, 1950 and 1958[edit]

The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1947 implemented in the Dominion of Pakistan was enacted to make effective provisions for the prevention of bribery and corruption of public servants, particularly in the bureaucratic administration. The autonomous Princely State of Bahawalpur adopted its own version of the act, namely the Bahawalpur Prevention of Corruption Act, 1950.

In 1955, an accord was signed between Nawab Sadeq Mohammad Khan V and Lt Gen Ghulam Muhammad Malik which made the state of Bahawalpur a part of the province of West Pakistan. This geopolitical change meant that the original act needed amendments to include Bahawalpur and other regions which were originally left out of the act. Subsequently, in October 1958, an ordinance was passed to extend the act to the whole of the province of West Pakistan – this is known as the Prevention of Corruption Act (West Pakistan Extension) Ordinance, 1958. This ordinance extended the scope of the original to the districts of Karat, Kharan, Makran and Lasbela and also repealed the Bahawalpur Prevention of Corruption Act, 1950.

National Accountability Bureau Ordinance, 1999[edit]

On 16 November 1999, Ordinance XIX was passed which later came to be known as the National Accountability Bureau Ordinance. It called for the establishment of the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) as an autonomous federal institution building efforts to combat cases of corruption, financial crimes and economic terrorism in Pakistan. According to the ordinance, NAB was granted authority to launch investigations, conduct inquiries, and issue arrest warrants against individuals suspected in financial mismanagement, terrorism, corruption in private, state, defence and corporate sectors), and direct such cases to accountability courts. Individuals convicted under the National Accountability Bureau Ordinance are prohibited from holding political office for ten years.[35]

Provincial legislation against corruption[edit]

The provincial governments of Pakistan are responsible for legislations in their respective provinces and since 2013, there has been several legislative efforts against corruption, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. Following is a list of recent anti-corruption legislations:

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa anti-corruption legislations[edit]

The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Right to Information Bill was passed in the provincial assembly on 31 October 2013. It was enacted throughout the province by the Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on 4 November 2013 as the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Right to Information Act, 2013.[36] The legislation makes way for provisions that add transparency to the various functions and departments of the government. It gives the citizens of the province the right to access any information or record held by a public body, except for the information that is sensitive to the security of the state.

Role of mainstream and social media[edit]

Mainstream media[edit]

Before 2002, the electronic media was entirely dominated by state-owned institutions like Pakistan Television Corporation and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation. This monopoly was thwarted, when the Musharraf regime regulated the electronic media allowing for private television channels to be operated independently. Since the liberalisation of the electronic media in 2002, it has served as a major force in exposing corruption-related cases and scams.

Following are a few of the major corruption scams and scandals reported and exposed in the mainstream Pakistani media:

  • Rental Power Projects (RPP) scam: In 2006, the media reported on a case involving several instances of bribery in the Rental Power Projects (RPP) where top-level ministers were involved. Former prime minister Raja Pervez Ashraf was also allegedly involved in these cases of corruption but was later cleared by the NAB. His involvement in this case earned him the nickname "Raja Rental".[37]
  • PMDC fake registrations: In 2010, Dr Ahmad Nadeem Akbar, Registrar of the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council had cancelled fake registrations done by some PM&DC officials and had dismissed them from service as they were found to issuing fake registration of medical professionals, allowing for inexperienced personnel to take up important positions in medicine and play with lives of public.The Islamabad High Court in July 2014 and earlier the Supreme Court had upheld his actions and have ordered high power inquiries by NAB in this regard against culprits nominated by Dr Ahmad Nadeem Akbar[38] Once this negligence was reported in the media, the Anti-corruption and Crime Wing of the Federal Investigation Agency took action and identified fake registrations for 40 doctors and 19 medical colleges. The case of registration of 19 medical colleges in one day was investigated by Honourable Justice Shabbar Raza Rizvi and report points towards corruption by the PM&DC Executive Committee member Dr Asim Hussain and Prof Massod Hameed Khan and the employees of the Federal Ministry. As of 2013, FIA had identified about 150 probable instances of fake registrations.[39]
  • Mismanagement of state-owned institutions: Pakistan's flagship airline Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) was reported to have been mismanagement by the executive authorities giving rise to a corrupt culture of bribery. Corruption in PIA led to losses of around US$ 500 million.[31] Similarly, massive financial losses were reported for Pakistan Railways caused by embezzlement.[32]
  • Hajj corruption case: Media reported on an ongoing corruption scandal involving federal ministers extorting illegal payouts from travel agents involved in fleecing Hajj pilgrims to Saudi Arabia.[40] The Minister of Science and Technology, Azam Khan Swati, identified and named the Minister of Religious Affairs, Hamid Saeed Kazmi, as being responsible for giving out these illegal orders. He revealed that he had already warned the prime minister about the scandal thereby making several leading members of the parliament accessory to these criminal offences.[41]
  • OGRA scam: One Adnan Khwaja brother-in-law of PPP Secretary-General Punjab was appointed as Chairman who was instrumental in the scam. The OGRA scam case is sub-judice and the ex-Chairman is being prosecuted but at snails's pace.
  • NATO containers case: Media reported on 40 NATO containers that went missing on their way to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. It was later identified that the missing containers carried cargo that was considered contraband in Pakistan, including liquor to be sold in Pakistan.[42]
  • Pakistan Steel Mills scam: The mainstream media reported a major scam in the Pakistan Steel Mills involving Rs 26.5 billion. Once the scam was reported, the FIA initially took action but their progress turned sluggish due to which the Supreme Court issued a contempt of court notice to the interior ministerRehman Malik for hindering and interfering with the investigation.[43]
  • NICL corruption case: The National Insurance Company Limited scandal was first reported in the media in 2012 involving the purchase of 10 acres of land in Karachi by the company at "an exorbitant price" and the transfer of millions of rupees from the account of Zafar Salim, a cousin of the land seller Khwaja Akbar Butt into the joint accounts of Makhdoom Muhammad Ameen Faheem, his wife and his son.[44][45]
  • Ephedrine quota case: The Ephedrine quote case was a scandal involving prime ministerYousaf Raza Gillani's son, Ali Musa Gillani, who pressure officials of the Ministry of Health into allocating a quota (worth Rs 70 billion) of controlled chemical ephedrine to two different Multan-based pharmaceutical companies.[46]
  • The mediagate scandal: It was reported that Chief Justice of PakistanIftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry's son had allegedly taken money from Malik Riaz Hussain, a real-estate tycoon, to persuade courts to give decisions in favour of the latter. Renowned columnist and anchorperson Javed Chaudhry observed that the case against Malik Riaz proved that the media can hold itself and the judiciary accountable. He further added that this case along with the case for missing persons effectively establish the credibility and impartiality of media's fight against corruption.[47]

Social media[edit]

In the wake of 2013 elections, massive electoral rigging was exposed through first-hand accounts of several members of the public via social networking websites. Specialised websites were set up to publish and archive material exposing corrupt malpractices throughout the many polling stations serving several constituencies, e.g., dhandli.com. Several leaked videos of persons caught in the act of rigging the polls went viral and caught the eye of the mainstream media becoming topics of discussion in days to follow.[48] Even before the elections, social media served as an effective tool to hold the nation's to-be-leaders "accountable" for various issues like corruption and education.[49]

Citizen journalism is emerging as a growing phenomenon and social media is being touted in Pakistan as an important tool that can be used to strengthen democracy.[50] Adding to the mix, several prominent politicians have moved to the likes of Twitter to gather support and get prospective voters on board and analysts think that this can lead to a better and direct accountability of political leaders. Social media has also proved effective in identifying corruption in mainstream media,[51] particularly in the case of the mediagate scandal.

Corruption by sector[edit]

Judiciary[edit]

See also: Judiciary of Pakistan

In 2002, in a report titled "Nature and Extent of Corruption in the Public Sector", Transparency International (TI) Pakistan reported that the highest amounts of bribery were spent on people affiliated with the judiciary.[52] Later in 2010, TI Pakistan presented a breakdown of the various actors in the judicial system involved in corruption. A majority of the participants reported that they, or someone in their household, has been subjected to an act of corruption while interacting with someone from the judiciary. When asked of the actors involved, 33.62% people said court employees, 23.73% said public prosecutors, 14.12% said witnesses, 12.43% said judges, 8.19% said opponent lawyer, 4.52% said magistrates while 3.39% mentioned others.[53]

In a 2011 survey, TI Pakistan identified judiciary as the most corrupt institution in Pakistan alongside police.[54] Nevertheless, with the proceedings of some high-impact corruption cases against government officials, including the prime minister, the Supreme Court demonstrated its positive role in tackling corruption. Where the apex court was being hailed for its anti-corruption efforts in 2013,[55] Mehmoodul Hassan, a member of the Sindh Bar Council, alleged that nepotism and corruption were still "rampant" in the lower judiciary, particularly high courts and the lower courts, where people were unlawfully promoted within the judiciary.[56]

Education[edit]

See also: Education in Pakistan

In the 2010, TI Pakistan reported that about 23.7% of those surveyed received admission in educational institutions through non-normal and alternate procedures.[57] One of the biggest problems identified in the country is the presence of a non-uniform educational system.[58] The private sector actively encourages western educational models such as the General Certificate of Secondary Education using this to justify unaffordable fees they charge ordinary citizens.[59] Finding gain in such enterprises, the elite class amongst politicians, technocrats, bureaucrats and businessmen usually capitalise in this venture. These attitudes can also explain the deteriorating standards in the public sector educational institutes.[60] On the other hand, state-owned public schools face several challenges including poor management and governance, and incompetence of consecutive governments in the education sector. Further factors for failing standards in state-run institutions include lack of funding, non-utilisation by elite classes, appointments of under-qualified faculty.

For a brief time during the regime of Pervez Musharraf, Pakistan received unprecedented investments in its higher-education sector – this funding faltered with the arrival of Zardari's government after 2008.[61] In 2011, Dr Syed Abdul Aziz, director of Hamdard Institute of Education and Social Sciences declared education as one of the most corrupt sectors in Pakistan.[62] According to 2013 findings by Transparency International, factor that contribute to this corrupt culture in the sector include embezzlement of development funds allocated by the government, thousands of ghost schools that appear only on paper, bribes taken to sell confidential material to candidates, poor or under-utilisation of funds and an inertia to change on the behalf of the education ministry.[63]

Health care[edit]

See also: Health care in Pakistan

In 2010, 42% of surveyed individuals reported gaining access to hospital services by a method other than standard admission, and 48% reported either having to pay additional costs for essential services or being forced to utilize the services of a designated affiliate. Of the respondents who were asked to identify which parties orchestrated the corrupt acts, 61% reported hospital staff, 25% reported doctors, and 13% reported nurses.[64]

Police and law enforcement[edit]

See also: Law enforcement in Pakistan

Corruption is found to be commonplace in the lower levels of police.[65] Police was observed as the most corrupt sector in a 2013 survey by Transparency International (TI).[66] This situation has persisted since the graft watchdog's July 2010 survey,[67] in which it was noted that the major cause for corruption in this sector was due to a lack of accountability and merit, and low salaries.[65] Payment of bribes in order to escape and avoid charges was also commonplace; 31% of 4,224 respondents reported paying bribes to the police.[64] Citizen journalists upload instances of police officials taking bribes on social networking and video sharing websites like YouTube.[68][69]

Ordinary citizens face challenges in reporting instances of corruption they encounter with the police. In 2005, Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz ordered an investigation into claims by a 23-year-old woman who alleged that, in retaliation for attempting to reveal police corruption, police falsely detained her for fifteen days and raped her.[70]

Public utilities[edit]

Further information: Electricity sector in Pakistan

As of 2002, 96% of surveyed individuals reported corruption issues with electrical utility officials during the past year.[71] The most common types of corruption were billing related. Some consumers admitted to illegally reducing their utility bills, while others reported being harassed with inflated bills intended to solicit bribes. Out of the pool of corruption-affirmative respondents, 71% reported that money was "demanded directly by the actor".[71]

Sports corruption[edit]

See also: Pakistan cricket spot-fixing scandal

In August 2010, reporters from News of the World orchestrated a sting operation which was able to identify three Pakistani cricket players – Salman Butt, Mohammad Asif and Mohammad Amir – and a bookmaker Mazhar Majeed of being complicit in a row over spot-fixing in the fourth England-Pakistan test match at Lord's.[72] The cricketers each received 30 months, one year and six months jail term respectively while the bookmaker received two years and eight months jail term in a verdict issued by the Southwark Crown Court on November 3, 2011.[73][74][75][76] Following these events, on 15 November 2011, the chairman of the Pakistan Cricket Board, Zaka Ashraf established an anti-corruption unit to prevent players from becoming involved in illegal betting practices.[77]

Taxation[edit]

Further information: Taxation in Pakistan

According to the 2002 study, 99% of 256 respondents reported facing corruption of taxation. Furthermore, 32% of respondents reported paying bribes to have their tax assessment lowered, and nearly 14% reported receiving fictitious tax assessments until a bribe was paid.[71]

See also[edit]

Recommended reading[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^Rose-Ackerman (1997, p. 4)
  2. ^US Department of State (2011, p. 1)
  3. ^"Corruption Perception Index 2017". 
  4. ^"Corruption index: Pakistan's global ranking improves by 12 spots". The Express Tribune. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  5. ^Transparency International (2012)
  6. ^Transparency International (2011)
  7. ^"Pakistan less corrupt, according to global corruption list". The Express Tribune. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  8. ^Transparency International (2010)
  9. ^Transparency International (2009)
  10. ^Beyg, Saranjam (7 July 2013). "Tackling corruption". Dawn. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  11. ^"Full text of the NICL Judgement of the Supreme Court"(PDF). Supreme Court of Pakistan. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  12. ^Siddiqi, M A (25 April 2011). "A guide to the CSS: Want to change Pakistan? Try joining the government as an honest bureaucrat". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  13. ^Shafqat (1999, p. 995)
  14. ^World Bank (1983)
  15. ^World Bank (1985)
  16. ^World Bank (1993)
  17. ^World Bank (1997)
  18. ^Ziring (2003, p. 71)
  19. ^Ahmad (2001)
  20. ^Ziring (2003, p. 54)
  21. ^Hippler (1997)
  22. ^Rashid, Ahmed (6 September 2010). "Pakistani flood relief must start with fighting corruption". Opinions. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  23. ^Federal Research Division (2004, p. 94)
  24. ^Mohiuddin (2007, pp. 100–150, ch. 2, The Economy of Pakistan, "The Nationalization and Authoritarian Populism Under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto; 1971-1977")
  25. ^Noman (1990, pp. 77–79)
  26. ^Hiro, Dilip (2012). Apocalyptic Realm: Jihadists in South Asia. Yale University Press. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  27. ^"Profile: Nawaz Sharif". BBC. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  28. ^Siddiqui, Taha (17 April 2013). "Pakistan elections: Who are the main candidates for prime minister?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  29. ^Abbasi, Ansar (5 February 2005). "Rs 8,500 bn corruption mars Gilani tenure: Transparency". Geo News. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  30. ^ ab"$500m corruption in PIA, says PTI". Pakistan Today. 26 February 2012. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  31. ^ ab"Railways' 2009-10 audit highlights massive corruption and losses". Pakistan Today. 22 November 2010. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  32. ^ ab"LHC seeks assistance from DAG in case against Gilani, family". The Express Tribune. 28 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-24. 
  33. ^Iqbal, Nasir (26 April 2012). "Down but not out". Dawn. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  34. ^"Pakistan: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. United States Department of State. 25 February 2004. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  35. ^Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly (5 November 2013). "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Right to Information Act, 2013"(PDF). Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Retrieved 29 December 2013. 
  36. ^Abbasi, Ansar. "US starts probe into rental power projects scam". The News International. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  37. ^Klasra, Rauf. http://www.thenews.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspx?ID=243517&Cat=2&dt=6/7/2010. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  38. ^Wasif, Sehrish (11 July 2013). "PMDC investigation: 40 doctors, 19 medical colleges have fake registrations". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 2013-12-24.
Bhutto introduced the nationalisation programme in order to revitalise the economy but these policies were used by certain individual and groups to accumulate gain.
Yousaf Raza Gillani became the first head of state to be convicted while holding office and later disqualified on charges of loan defaulting.
Terrorism In Pakistan(Seniors please check my essay)

Terrorism in Pakistan
Outlines.
1. Introduction
2. Definition of terrorism
3. What is terrorism?
4. Islams response to terrorism
5. Causes of terrorism:
1-Socio economic causes
I. Injustice
2. Illiteracy
3. Overpopulation
4. Unemployment
5. No rule of law
6. Poverty
7. Inflation
8. Corruption
9. Dissatisfaction
10. Food insecurity
11. Inequality
12. Mismanagement
13. Lack of accountability
14. Favoritism
2. Political Causes
1. Political instability
2. Democratic failures
3. Clash between executive and judiciary
4. Absence of law and order
5. Influx of refugees
6 . Weaponisation
7. Drug trafficking
8. Mass massacre
9. Political gains
10. Feudalism
Religious causes:
1. Religious intolerance
2. Secterianism
3. Role of religious madressahs.
4. Religious elites indulgence in corruption
5. Misunderstanding of religion
6. Futile desire of heaven
7. Portray negative image
8. Material gains
9. Selfish motives
External causes
1. Afghanistan War 1979
2. Iranian Revolution
3. War on Terrorism9/11
4. External influence
5. International conspiracies
6. Role played by India
Factors Instigating Terrorism
1. Anti –terrorism campaign
2. Drone strikes
3. Negligence of Government
4. Persecution of innocent Muslims
.Kashmir issue
.Palestine issue
5. Impacts of terrorism
1. Insecurity
2. Political Instability
3. Infrastructure damage
4. Economic turmoil
5. Civilians loss
6. Diminishing Tourism
7. Declining FDI

6. Steps Recommended By Government:
Ban on Terror Boosting Organizations
Operation Rah-e-Nijat
Operation Rah-e-Rast
7. Triangular Relationship to Curb Terrorism:

USA
Pakistan
Afghanistan
8. Efforts to Vacate By 2014:
9. Critical Analysis
10. Conclusion



God has created this beautiful world with immense love and kindness. With Enormous affection Allah Almighty has given birth to his lovable creatures. He has given multiple colors to this world. He has formed Rivers, Oceans, Mountains, Stars and several other creations for the pleasure of mankind. He has given millions of shades to this mortal world. All are made for the gratification of human beings. Unfortunately, Human beings did not understand the motives of the creation of this world. Destruction and turmoil have become the fashion of the day. Terrorism is the gravest foam of destruction and disaster. It damages the internal as well as external infrastructure of every country. Insecurity and mental pressure have created a sense of self deprivation among masses.
At present, Pakistan has been facing the gigantic problem of terrorism. It has become the fashion of the day. It is regarded as headache for federation and a nightmare for public. It has colossal roots which spread inside the internal as well as external boundaries of Pakistan. Although it is global issue yet Pakistan has to bear the brunt of it. Pakistan’s involvement in war against terrorism has further fuel the fire. We are facing war like situation in Pakistan .This daunting situation is caused due to several factors. These factors included the followings which are summarized as below: Political instability, social injustice, inequality, self deprivation, religious intolerance, external hands and international conspiracies.
The term terrorism has been used millions of times around the whole globe. It is pertinent to know about the meaning of this soul trembling word. Terrorism is a use of force to create harassment. It is also used to create an environment of fear and violence. Basically there is no Specific definition of the term terrorism. International law has no definition to define or elaborate this term. Use of Authority for personal gains is also indicating towards terrorism.
A handful of people who have their vicious interests to fulfill have not only taken the lives of millions of innocent lives but also defamed the pious image of Islam. Terrorist’s acts like suicide bombings have become norm of the day. On account of these attacks Pakistan is suffering from huge loss ranging from civilian to economics. People have become numerical figure blowing up in every minute.
Terrorists have not left any place vacant. They spread around the whole country. Markets, shrines, mosques, hotels, gardens and educational institutes all are now under the thumb of just one click of terrorists. They blasted everything. They are responsible for the innocent lives of people. They hold special place in hell.
Islam is the pious religion around the whole orb. Purity of Islam reflects from the teachings of Holy Prophet PbUH.It always gives the message of peace , prosperity , kindness, justice, equality and love. Islam forbids all kinds of corrupt activities. Massacre of innocent lives are highly reprehensible in Islam. Committing cruel activities are forbidden in pious religion Islam. Islam openly negated terrorism.
Religion of Islam Advocates freedom, peace, mutual disagreement and admonishes aggression.
Now let’s have a cursory look on the following verses of holy Quran which indicates the fact.
“Do not aggress; God dislikes the aggressors”.
On another place holy Quran clearly says, “You shall resort to pardon, advocate tolerance and disregard the ignorant”.
In Islam an immense emphasizes has been laid upon love and sympathy towards all creatures. God has directed to be polite in speaking. Thus Islam is the perfect religion of the world; it condemned all stances of terrorism. How can a terrorist wish for heaven? They are directly assigning their place in hell.
Now let’s have a cursory look on the causes of terrorism. Terrorism is a crime. It is now become a hard nut to crack for the triangular countries (Pakistan, Afghanistan, and USA).The causes of terrorism is divided into spheres; internal causes and external causes. Internal causes further divided into socio -economic causes, political causes and religious causes. External causes include Soviet incursion of Afghanistan 1979, Iranian revolution, War on terrorism 9/11 and international conspiracies.

Now let’s have a watch on internal causes of terrorism. First of all, socio economic challenges this aggravated the already deteriorating conditions. It includes injustice, inequality, poverty, unemployment, Inflation, food insecurity, threat, dissatisfaction, illiteracy, over abundant population and massive corruption. It is very important to know these causes.
Injustice has been spreading since Independence. After the emergence of Pakistan, as a sovereign nation in the world map, it has encircled with several issues related to injustice. Lower class people are always suffering. No proper system of justice is present. Questions remain unanswered. Millions of people came from Indo Pakistan Subcontinent to fulfill their shattered dreams but all hopes were shattered by feudal class. This mighty class deprived people to obtain their due share. This class joined hand together with chief officers and usurped the rights of uneducated innocent people, who even did not know the hard realities of life.
Second issue which Pakistan has been facing as a threat is massive unemployment. The ratio of unemployment is increasing day by day. It created a big gap between developed nation and developing nation. Employment is now become the need of an hour. Without money you cannot survive in this materialistic world. Terrorism spreads like a giant because of unemployment; innocent people are trapped by terrorists. They give all amenities and facilities in shape of monetary foam. They pay heavy amount to them and in returns fulfill their selfish motives. They ruined the young generation. Proper channel of employment should be introduced. This disease should be removed. It is biggest challenge which is the root of all evils.
Third cause of terrorism is illiteracy, which should be removed instantly. In Pakistan illiterate person can easily be cheated by sharp minded terrorist. They only want to gain their motives. They can easily ruined the life’s of people .they have no feelings for others. They are burning in the own flame of revenge. They can destroy the lives of people. Illiteracy rate should only be decreased by promoting the importance of education. Campaign should be introduced. Government should introduce new ways to spread education in downtrodden areas. Illiteracy is more in Baluchistan, KP, and Fata and in the rural areas of Sindh and Punjab. This evil is eating the roots of Pakistan.
Fourth problem of Pakistan is poverty. Poverty is a term which has been derived from the Latin word pauper means poor. Poverty refers to a condition having less or fewer resources than others. According to various institutional reports I t has been identified that poverty is the main reason of terrorism. According to undp, 65.5 percent population of Pakistan has been earning their livelihood on 2$per day.
Another report of Spdc has revealed clearly the poverty status of Pakistan, 65.5percent in Baluchistan, 58.5 percent in NWFP, 28percent in Punjab, 21 percent in sindh.
According to World Bank report Poverty is spreading as a giant’s deficiently suffered because of World economic recession.EU countries pushed millions of people in debt trap. Poverty should be controlled with efficacious measures. Government should launch new and effective opportunities to curb the menace of poverty.
Mismanagement of resources is one of the major challenges which Pakistan has been facing. God has provided bundles of natural resources. These natural resources are now on the verge of destruction. Terrorism is devastating the natural beauty and this natural beauty is a channel of obtaining food. Government should pay high attention to this side. These natural blessings of God Should are managed properly.
Lack of accountability is another factor of terrorism. Accountability is very necessary. Without it no one can perform his duties in an organized and proper manner. Absence of accountability is a vacuum. It paves the way for terrorist to fulfill their selfish motives. They are playing their role without any constraints.
Corruption is a threat to sovereignty. It is an alarm for national integration. This term has been defined as; it is a use of force for obtaining personal gains. Since independence Pakistan has been culprit of corruption. This disease is eating the roots of Pakistan. It is spreading like a cancer. Mighty hands are indulged in the promotion of corruption. No sector is saving from this giant. The main reason of corruption is low level of salaries, Unemployment, poverty, illiteracy and overpopulation. These all are promoting people to indulge in corrupt activities. Corruption has the following kinds: bribe, nepotism, favoritism, political patronage, bidding process and so on.
Dissatisfaction is also increasing to large extent. It is creating a sense of insecurity. Terrorists in order to gain their selfish aims spread the wind of turmoil and threat. Dissatisfaction has been increased in every sphere of life.
Food insecurity is also enhancing to great extent. Because of terrorism, Government spends more budgets on the defense of the country. The prices of commodities are increasing. It becomes very difficult for an ordinary lower class people to bear the expenses. Apart from this, Agriculture is the main blood of our country. It also faces adverse impact. Our economy is totally revolves around agriculture sector. Industries are wholly dependable on agriculture sector. Everything is interconnected. Agriculture provides a strong base to our industries. Industries are a major source of revenue generation. Food insecurity is largely dependable on agriculture sector. Government should invest heavy amounts of funds to this sector.
Political causes is also creating vacuum. It also paved the way for terrorist to establish their foot. Political causes included the followings; political instability, corruption within politics, no proper set up, military intervention, Clash between institution, lack of consensus, selfish motives of politicians, feudal dispensation and lack of accountability.
Since independence Pakistan has been facing difficulties in the establishment of political set. Basically, there is no political set up in Pakistan. Everyone is pulling the leg of one another for the sake of self motives. In the initial years of Pakistan, Muslim league faced failure due to feudal class intervention. After passing some year’s constitutional crises erupted. Pakistan took long seven years to formulate first constitution. Corruption prevailed to large extent. Military intervention to curb the spread of corruption became the fashion of Pakistan. Constant four military interventions destroyed the image of Pakistan. Clash between judiciary and executive class have also come to forefront on several occasions. These all political turmoil paves the way for terrorists.
Religious causes also give sound ground to terrorists. Now a day, religious intolerance is spreading around the country. People are misunderstanding the religion (Islam).The concepts, ideas and values which are presented by Almighty Allah in Holy Quran are totally different from what people understand. This is termed as misconception. Misinterpretation of religion has become a norm of the day. Extremist considered themselves as the followers of Islam but unfortunately they do not comprehend the message of Allah Almighty. The message of Almighty Allah is peace, love, sympathy, kindness and honesty. Terrorists’ are not following the message of Allah. They are doing Jihad for themselves. Jihad means fight for the cause of Allah. Fight in the way of Allah. Religious intolerance should only be controlled by learning and understanding Quran. Quran is the complete Guideline for the whole world. It is a sacred book which was revealed on Holy Prophet PBUH. Holy Prophet PBUH is the biggest example of love, sympathy and tolerance. Why we don’t follow the path of Allah?
Religious Madressahs is a hub of terrorists. They are taught and guided in the madressahs.after the soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, these madressahs were establish to prepare mujahedeen. The overall funding of mujahedeen were under the supervision of USA.they had been prepared to evacuate Afghanistan from the Soviet Invasion. Soviet forces faced defeat from mujahideen.After the failure of soviet forces a vacuum generated in war ridden country. Civil war erupted and continued for six years. This gave birth to drug trafficking, addiction, Weaponisation and other criminal activities. It further aggravated the circumstances. Pakistan had to bear the brunt of it.Weaponization culture entered inside the roots of Pakistan. Thus began a new journey of disaster and turmoil known as Kalashnikovs Culture. Pakistan always supported USA in the hour of grief’s always left Pakistan in the hour of pains. After fulfillment of motives, this marriage of convergence ended between USA and Pakistan.
Iranian Revolution also created a sense of conflicts inside the boundaries of Pakistan. Sectarianism conflicts erupted. Shia and Sunni rivalry began which further deteriorated the condition. This also laid the strong foothold of extremist inside the boundaries of Pakistan.
War on terrorism9/11 began, when three hijacked planes collided with the World TRADE CENTE NEW YORK and Pentagon building. This was the cowardly attack which occurred on 9/11.killed several innocent lives of people. People were buried under the roof of largest building. This clearly showed the weakness of USA intelligence agency. President Bush invited the whole international community to participate in so called war on terrorism. Pakistan became the top non NATO ally of Pakistan. Pakistan moves heaven and earth to curb the power of Taliban. After the long year of partnership, between USA and Pakistan, USA has decided to evacuate Afghanistan before 2014.This war on terrorism has claimed millions of innocent lives. Millions of USA military officers were lost their lives. It created havoc around the whole globe.USA will assigned this responsibility to afghan forces.
External influence is also instigating the terrorism. It is viewed on several occasions that India is indulged in creating conspiracies. It created misunderstanding between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Now let’s have a cursory look on the factors which are instigating terrorism. These factors included the following; negligence of government, drone strikes, anti terrorism campaigns, injustice, persecution of innocent Muslims of Palestine and Kashmir.

Terrorism puts adverse impact on the life of individuals. It is not only put bad impact on individual’s life but also entire society is encircled. Flames and flames are encircling the whole Pakistan. Every city is now under the influence of terrorism. It affects the mental health of people. People fear around the whole country. Is this Pakistan? We were fighting and demanding for. Our beloved father of nation who struggled to built this country so called Quaid e azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Quaideazam condemned bloodshed on every occasion. Unfortunately now at every place in Pakistan Rivers of blood are flowing. Dead bodies are floating in this river, and all are happening because of terrorism. Terrorism spreads havoc .It claimed millions of lives. Don’t know how many others will be victimized in upcoming days. It puts bad impact on social life. Now Pakistani society has become the hub of terrorism. Bomb blast has become the norm of the day. Every street comes under the target of just one thumb click. Students are avoiding going to schools. Absences of teachers are reached at its zenith. Overall infrastructure of FATA, KP, and Baluchistan are damaged because of massive terrorist attacks. Girl’s schools are also targeting. The basic motives of terrorists to damage the educational institutes. They do not give preference to women education. They want to treat women as chattels. They openly negated the concept of women empowerment. The recent attack on 14 year old blameless girl named Malala Yusuf zai was regarded as cowardly act of terrorists. What they want? They actually want illiterate Pakistan. They wanted to spread the condition of Pre Islamic Arab. Pre Islamic Arabs were engaged in nasty circle of vices. They were the rulers of darkness. They were unaware people. After the arrival of light in the shape of Prophet Pbuh the overall world has been transformed. No one knows the hidden motives of extremist except bloodshed. Education is regarded as the blood of a country. Nation cannot grow like a tree in the absence of education. Education provides knowledge. It gives respectful position in social cycle. Absence of knowledge is as similar as absence of humanity in men. God has given full permission to avail knowledge. It is the right of every individual to attain knowledge. Without knowledge, a man is like an animal.
Political turmoil is evident in Pakistan. This gives an opportunity to extremist .This turmoil is further instigating by rebels. Pakistani Government should maintain healthy relationship whether inside or outside the political spheres. It will be beneficial for the whole nation. The recent clash of institution further fuelled the fire. Pakistan should play efficacious role in countering terrorism. Sound policies are required.
Since independence, Pakistan has been facing several downfalls. These downfalls created a gap inside and outside the infrastructure of Pakistan. Terrorism is the disease. It weakened the foundation of Pakistan. From its inception it faced millions of difficulties. Early problems of pakistanwhich included war with india,rehabilitation of millions of people,mismanagement,lack of resources, Water crises, massive corruption, lack of accountability, unjust demarcation of state and mass massacre all were damaging the existence of newly born state. After overcoming from these crises, Pakistan was encircled with several others crises. These crises were democratic setup, constitutional crises, feudalism, military intervention and institutional clashes. After ending these germs, international influence were shacking the weak foundation of Pakistan. Hence it is clear that Pakistan is hanging in the balance.
Economic turmoil is another impact of terrorism. Terrorism put worse impacts on economy of Pakistan. The economy of Pakistan is based on the agriculture sector.agricultre is the blood of Pakistan. It is source of revenue generation. Apart from revenue generation it is the source of food. Agriculture sector provides base to industrial sector. In the absence of agriculture sector, industrial sectors have no existence. Both are interconnected. So in this regard economy of Pakistan is adversely affected.
Lives of people are very much valuable. Almighty Allah has created his creature with love and kindness. Millions of civilians have losted their precious life. God condemned scene of carnage.
Pakistan earns a lot of revenue from tourism. Tourism is regarded as the source of revenue generation. Beauty of Pakistan is very famous around the whole world. This beauty has been damaged by destructions. Tourism in Pakistan now diminishes to great extent. This is another worse impact of terrorism.
Foreign direct investment also declined. This is another disastrous impact of terrorism. We are going back day by day. Efficacious policies are required to cut the throat of terrorism. Now multinational companies are not investing in Pakistan. It reduced our economic graph. The picture of Pakistan in the modernized world is soul trembling. Most of the people are going and settling abroad. Industries are closed. Economic condition reached at zilch. This is Pakistan which is facing the curse of terrorism. Taliban is the slogan of carnage. They are not human beings. They are dragons. They are creating havoc around the whole globe. Name of Pakistan is iniquitous around the whole world.
Now let’s have a cursory look on the steps recommended by Pakistani Government to curb the power of terrorism. Pakistan has taken several stances to reduce the intensity of extremism. The efforts of Pakistan military are commendable. Thousands of military officers’ losted their precious and valuable life .Lots of anti terrorism campaigns have been launched. Several bans on terrorist organizations have been enforced. Numerous operations had done to eliminate terrorists such as Operation Rah-e-Rast and Operation Rah-e- Nija, operation Rah-e –haq and operation rah-e-rast swat. Operation Rah-e-Haq was the first battle of swat between Pakistan and the Taliban. It was carried on 2007 in swat. Operation Rah e rast was operated on 30june2009.Operation Rah-e-nijat began on June 19 2009.the place of operation was South Waziristan in FATA.All these operations were carried on to curb the power of Taliban.
Now let’s have a glance on the triangular relationship among Pakistan USA and Afghanistan. Pakistan joined hand with USA to curb the power of Taliban. The relationship between USA and Pakistan is well known as the marriage of convergence. Pakistan is the non NATO ally of USa.Pakistan supported USA in every walk of this journey. Since 9/11, Pakistan and USA have been working to curb the power of terrorism. Because of USA strict policies this war creating a sense of turmoil around the whole globe.Dronestrikes are creating tension. Growing civilians’ causalities are becoming a threat for USA.
Now let’s have a cursory look on Afghanistan, USA Wrong policies and our options. America is going to face the worst ever defeat of its history. The crusade that USA launched after 9/11 against Taliban, the much desired victory has not fallen in to his lap in accordance with its plan. The Taliban are proved to be a hard nut to crack for USA.Instead USA realized the ground realities and make strategies for negotiations, it is committing blunders after blunders. The rulers in Pakistan and the national security institutions must keep eye on the situation of various steps taken by USA in Afghanistan. America is committing blunders by holding backdoor negotiations with traliban.they cannot work without Pakistan. It is the bitter reality.
Why does USA Leave Afghanistan? The answer of this question has so many reasons. First, USA and NATO occupation created civilian casualties.
Second, military occupation has hampered humanitarian aid and reconstruction efforts.
Third, Afghan women continue to face violence and oppression under occupation.
Fourth, NATO allies and military leaders are now questioning the occupation.
Fifth, USA troop’s casualties in Afghanistan are on height.
Sixth, Afghans are now calling for a negotiated end to the war.
Seventh, the occupation contributes to violence.
Now let’s have a cursory look on the recommendations for USA to change his policy towards Afghanistan.
Setting permanent timetable for withdrawal. It would be better.USA should immediately cease air strikes because it is the main reason of civilian casualties. It further damaged the image of USA.It should also support negotiated process. Compensate afghan families affected by war.
Thus, Pakistan puts several efforts to curb the danger of terrorism. Terrorism should only be controlled with mutual efforts. It is not a war of one country but it is a war of whole world. Overall international community should come forward to eliminate this gigantic threat. Negotiations are now only the safe solution to curb this menace. We don’t want more casualties whether in Pakistan, Afghanistan or USA.Whole nation should come forward to defeat this threat. We should join hands together and safe this globe from violence. Proper and effective measures should be laid down by government. Pakistan is considered as a land of purity. Purity can only be remained if we understand the motto of extremists. Let’s pray Almighty Allah to shower his blessings on Pakistan. Save this pious land from the selfish aims of terrorists.

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