Structure And Function Of Carbohydrates Essay Aqa Exam


Essay titles


The process of diffusion and its importance inliving organisms.2.

The different ways in which organisms useATP (June 2002) OR ATP and its roles in livingorganisms.3.

The movement of substances within livingorganisms (Jan 2003) OR Transportmechanisms in living organisms.4.

Mutation and its consequences.5.

The properties of enzymes and theirimportance in living organisms OR The role of enzymes in living organisms.6.

The ways in which a mammal maintainsconstant conditions inside its body.7.

Negative feedback in living organisms (June2005)8.

Chemical coordination in organisms.9.

The production and elimination of metabolicwaste products in living organisms.10.

The biological importance of water (Jan 2003)OR The role of water in the lives of organisms.11.

The importance of proteins in livingorganisms.12.

How the structure of proteins is related totheir functions (Jan 2004).13.

The importance of lipids in living organisms.14.

The importance of carbohydrates in livingorganisms OR The structure and functions of carbohydrates (June 2003).15.

How the structure of cells is related to theirfunction (June 2002).16.

Natural selection and the effects of environmental change.17.

Gas exchange in animals and flowering plants.18.

The importance of molecular shape in livingorganisms.19.

The factors affecting the growth and size of populations.20.

Cycles in Biology (June 2003).21.

The causes of variation and its biologicalimportance (Jan 2004).22.

The process of osmosis and its importance toliving organisms (June 2004).23.

Energy transfers which take place inside livingorganisms (June 2004).24.

How microscopes have contributed to ourunderstanding of living organisms (Jan 2005).25.

Enzymes and their importance in plants andanimals (Jan 2005).26.

Mean temperatures are rising in many partsof the world. The rising temperatures mayresult in physiological and ecological effectson living organisms. Describe and explainthese effects. (June 2005)27.

The transfer of substances containing carbonbetween organisms and between organismsand the environment (June 2006).28.

Cells are easy to distinguish by their shape.How are the shapes of cells related to theirfunction? (June 2006)29.

Movements inside cells. (June 2007)30.

Transfers through ecosystems. (June 2007)31.

The part played by the movement of substances across cell membranes in thefunctioning of different organs and organssystems (June 2008).32.

The part played by enzymes in the functioningof different cells, tissues and organs (June2008)33.

Ions and Organisms (June 2009)34.

DNA and the transfer of information (June2009)35.

Carbon dioxide may affect organisms directlyor indirectly. Describe and explain theseeffects. (June 2010)36.

The causes of disease in humans (June 2010).37.

The role of carbon containing compounds inliving organisms.38.

The role of nitrogen containing compounds inliving organisms.39.

The roles of membranes in living organisms.40.

The role of DNA in living organisms.41.

Applications and implications of genetechnology.42.

Genetic variation and speciation.43.

Control of the internal environment in livingorganisms.44.

The movement of molecules and ions throughmembranes.45.

Roles of pigments in living organisms.46.

Light and life.47.

Support and movement in living organisms.48.

The chemical and biological control of insectpests.

Polymers are large molecules found in every biological system. Each polymer has a structure that is related to its function. Write a description (i.e., describe) of how the structure of biological polymers is related to their function. [25 marks]

This is the list of the MAIN POINTS that would be looked for in the essay:

Polymers as:

  • molecules associated with storage: Biological molecules, carbohydrates and proteins, The release of energy from carbohydrate, The control of blood glucose
  • informational molecules: enzymes, DNA as genetic material, structure of nucleic acids, immunology, transport of respiratory gases
  • structural molecules: cell ultrastructure, cell walls, biological molecules, carbohydrates and proteins

Examiners are also given instructions as follows: If the essay contains information from more than one area e.g. polymers associated with storage & structural molecules, 2 marks can be given; information from one area is awarded 1 mark generally. However, examiners are allowed some discretion in where information is drawn and this means that other study areas can be incorporated into the essay. For example, an examiner would be able to consider awarding marks for incorporating plant & microbial biology too as this is just as relevant to polymers as vital biological molecules.

How marks are awarded:

Each awarding body has slightly different values to how marks are awarded and / or where certain criteria fall.

This is a general idea of where marks for Essay 3 would be awarded.

  • Scientific Content: maximum of 16 marks depending upon coverage of topic areas (in depth, superficial), occurrence of biological / scientific errors
  • Breadth of Knowledge: maximum of 3 marks depending upon how many areas of the title have been covered (see Main Points above), if any topic areas essential to basic biological understanding have been omitted, if you have covered more than one area in the main points (little credit is given to writing about just one of the main areas e.g.. storage)
  • Relevance: maximum of 3 marks & this speaks for itself. If you start writing or drawing about something other than surface area & its linked topics, marks will be lost. The only occasion where you can put in something less relevant is the introduction but, better to keep to the topic rigidly.
  • Quality of language: maximum of 3 marks and this also speaks for itself. This is all about good English, good scientific language (no terms like “great big thing” “huge” “amount” or other weak, vague language)

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