What is a 'Market Maker'
A market maker is a "market participant" or member firm of an exchange that also buys and sells securities at prices it displays in an exchange’s trading system for its own account which are called principal trades and for customer accounts which are called agency trades. Using these systems, a market maker can enter and adjust quotes to buy or sell, enter, and execute orders, and clear those orders. Market makers exist under rules created by stock exchanges approved by a securities regulator. In the U.S., the Securities and Exchange Commission is the main regulator of the exchanges. Market maker rights and responsibilities vary by exchange, and the market within an exchange such as equities or options.
BREAKING DOWN 'Market Maker'
The most common type of market maker is a brokerage house that provides purchase and sale solutions for investors in order to keep the financial markets liquid. A market maker can also be an individual intermediary, but due to the size of securities needed to facilitate the volume of purchases and sales, almost all market makers are or work for large institutions.
"Making a market" means a willingness to buy and sell the securities of a defined set of companies to broker-dealer firms that are member firms of that exchange. Each market maker displays buy and sell quotations for a guaranteed number of shares. Once an order is received from a buyer, the market maker immediately sells from its own holdings or inventory of those shares to complete the order.
Thus, market making enables the smooth flow of financial markets. Without this, investors and traders would not be able to buy and sell as easily. Less transactions in a market naturally translates to less investing, overall. Investing less would reduce funds available to companies and tend to decrease prices of shares of smaller companies without as wide a base of investors.
Exchange rules often have more than one category of market maker. Within the rules, a market maker firm can decide to commit to more responsibility for the smooth market performance of the specific securities in which it agrees to make a market. The market maker’s commitments include continuously quoting prices at which it will buy or bid, and sell or ask for securities. Market makers also have to quote the volume in which it is willing to trade and the frequency of time it will quote at the Best Bid and Best Offer (BBO) prices, and how it will do all of the above during all kinds of market hours and conditions. When markets become erratic or volatile, market makers need to keep a cool head to facilitate smooth transactions.
How Market Makers Earn Profits
All market makers are compensated for the risk of holding assets. The risk they face is a decline in the value of a security after it has been purchased from a seller and before it's sold to a buyer. Therefore, market makers charge a spread on each security that they cover. This is known as the bid-ask spread and is extremely common in financial transactions. For example, when an investor searches for a stock using an online brokerage firm, it might have a bid price of $100 and an ask price of $100.05. This means that the broker is purchasing the stock for $100 and then selling the stock for $100.05 to prospective buyers. Through high-volume trading, the small spread ads up to large daily profits.
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This is a bibliography of notable works about India.
India history books
Single volume works
- Ancient India
- Bibliotheca historica: Book II: The East. by Diodorus Siculus, 1st century BC, p. 35‑60.
- Ashokavadana, 2nd century CE
- Mookerji, Radhakumud (1912). Indian Shipping: A history of the sea-borne trade and maritime activity of the Indians from the earliest times. Longmans, Green and Co., Bombay.
- F. E. Pargiter (1922). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. Oxford University Press, H. Milford.
- Bannerjee, Dr. Gauranganath (1921). India as Known to the Ancient World. Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, London.
- Medieval India
- Ain-i-Akbari, (Vol. 3 of Akbarnama). Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak. 16th century Full online set
- Jahangirnama (Tuzk-e-Jahangiri), 16th century
- Padshah Nama, by Muhammad Amin Qazvini. 1646
- Firishta, Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah Astarabadi (1794). Ferishta's History of Dekkan..(Vol. 1). Jonathan Scott (trans.). London: John Stockdale.
- Firishta, Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah Astarabadi (1794). Ferishta's History of Dekkan..(Vol. 2). Jonathan Scott (trans.). London: John Stockdale.
- Tod, James, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, 2 vols. London: Smith, Elder (1829, 1832).
- V. S. Bhatnagar (1991). "Foreword". Kānhaḍade Prabandha, India's Greatest Patriotic Saga of Medieval Times: Padmanābha's Epic Account of Kānhaḍade. Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-85179-54-4.
- Elphinstone, Mountstuart (1841). The History of India (Vol. 1). London: John Murray.
- Elphinstone, Mountstuart (1841). The History of India (Vol. 2). London: John Murray.
- Sachau, Edward C. (1910). Alberuni's India — An account of ... India about A.D. 1030 (Vol. 1). Kegan Paul, Trench Trubner & Co.Ltd., London.
- Sachau, Edward C. (1910). Alberuni's India — An account of ... India about A.D. 1030 (Vol 2.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench Trübner & Co. Ltd.
- Major, Richard Henry, ed. (1857). India in the Fifteenth Century: Being a collection of narratives of voyages to India, in the century . London: Hakluyt Society.
- H. M. Elliot, Ed. John Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (8 vols.), 1867-1877.
- Muḥammad, A. K., & Pandit, K. N. (2009). A Muslim missionary in mediaeval Kashmir: Being the English translation of Tohfatu'l-ahbab. New Delhi: Voice of India.
- Lethbridge, Roper, Sir (1893). The History of India. London: Macmillan.
- Feudge, Fannie Roper (1903). India; The Gorgeous East with Richest Hand Showers on her Kings Barbaric Pearl and Gold. The Saalfield Publishing Company, Ohio.
- De La Fosse, C. F. (1918). History of India (Revised ed.). London: Macmillan & Co.
- Neelesh Ishwarchandra Karkare. Shreenath Madhavji : Mahayoddha Mahadji Ki Shourya Gatha (2014)
- British Raj
- The Discovery of India, by Jawaharlal Nehru, 1946.
- Hunter, William Wilson, Sir (1893). A Brief History of the Indian Peoples. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Hudson, Roger, ed. (1999). The Raj: an eye-witness history of the British in India. London: Folio Society.
- Mill, James, The History of British India, 1818.
- Balagangadhara, S. N. (2012). Reconceptualizing India studies. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
- Bryant, Edwin. The Quest for the origins of Vedic culture. (2001) Oxford University Press
- Chakrabarti, Dilip K.: Colonial Indology, 1997, Munshiram Manoharlal: New Delhi.
- Durant, W. (2011). The case for India. Mumbai: Strand Book Stall.
- Inden, R. B. (2010). Imagining India. Bloomington, Ind: Indiana University Press.
- Lal, B. B. (1997). The earliest civilization of South Asia: Rise, maturity, and decline. New Delhi: Aryan Books International.
- Lal, B. B. (1998). India 1947-1997: New light on the Indus civilization. New Delhi: Aryan Books International.
- Lal, K. S. (1980). History of the Khaljis: A.D. 1290-1320. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.
- Vishwa Adluri, Joydeep Bagchee: The Nay Science: A History of German Indology. Oxford University Press, New York 2014, ISBN 978-0199931361
- Richards, John F. (1995). The Mughal Empire.
- India after Gandhi, by Ramachandra Guha, 2007.
- Dharampal, . (2000). Indian science and technology in the eighteenth century: Some contemporary European accounts. Goa: Other India.
- Dharampal, . (2000). The beautiful tree: Indigenous Indian education in the eighteenth century. Biblia Impex Private Limited, New Delhi 1983; reprinted by Keerthi Publishing House Pvt Ltd., Coimbatore 1995.
- Panikkar, K. M. (1965). Asia and Western dominance. Millswood, S. Aust: Braille Writing Association of South Australia.
- Priolkar, A.K, 1961, "The Goa Inquisition, Being a Quatercentenary Commemoration Study of the Inquisition in India", Bombay University
- Majumdar, R. C., Raychaudhuri, H., & Datta, K. (2007). An advanced history of India. Delhi: Macmillan India.
- Majumdar, R. C. (1970). Historiography in modern India. London: Asia Publishing House.
- Majumdar, R. C. (1962). History of the freedom movement in India. Calcutta: K. L. Mukhopadhyay.
- Trautmann, Thomas. 1997. Aryans and British India, University of California Press, Berkeley.
- Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
- Dutt, Romesh Chunder (1906). Williams Jackson, A. V., ed. History of India: From the Earliest times to the Sixth century B.C. History of India. 1. London: Grolier Society.
- Afonso, A. V., Chattopadhyaya, D. P., & Centre for Studies in Civilizations. (2009). History of science, philosophy and culture in Indian civilization: : project of history of Indian science, philosophy and culture. New Delhi. (20 Volumes)
- Smith, Vincent Arthur (1906). Williams Jackson, A. V., ed. History of India: From Sixth century B.C to Mohammedan Conquest. History of India. 2. London: Grolier Society.
- Lane-Poole, Stanley (1906). Williams Jackson, A. V., ed. History of India: From Mohammedan Conquest to the Reign of Akbar the Great. History of India. 3. London: Grolier Society.
- Lane-Poole, Stanley (1906). Williams Jackson, A. V., ed. History of India: From Reign of Akbar the Great to the Fall of Moghul Empire. History of India. 4. London: Grolier Society.
- Elliot, H. M. (1907). Williams Jackson, A. V., ed. History of India: The Muhammadan Period as Described by Its Own Historians. History of India. 5. London: Grolier Society.
- Hunter, William Wilson, Sir (1906). Williams Jackson, A. V., ed. History of India: From the first European settlements to the founding of the English East India Company. History of India. 6. London: Grolier Society.
- Hunter, William Wilson, Sir (1906). Williams Jackson, A. V., ed. History of India: The European struggle for Indian supremacy in the seventeenth century. History of India. 7. London: Grolier Society.
- Lyall, A. C., Sir (1907). Williams Jackson, A. V., ed. History of India: From the close of the seventeenth century to the present time. History of India. 8. London: Grolier Society.
- Jackson, A. V. Williams (1907). Williams Jackson, A. V., ed. History of India: Historic accounts of India by foreign travellers, classic, oriental, and occidental. History of India. 9. London: Grolier Society.
- Infinity Fountation. (2012). Infinity Foundation series: Contributions to history of Indian science and technology. New Delhi: Pentagon Press. (20 Volumes)
- Rapson, Edward James (1922). The Cambridge History of India: Ancient India (Vol. 1). Cambridge University Press.
- Haig, Wolseley, Sir (1928). The Cambridge History of India: Turks and Afghans (Vol. 3). Cambridge University Press.
- Dodwell, H. H. (1929). The Cambridge History of India: British India, 1497-1858 (Vol. 5). Cambridge University Press.
- Dodwell, H. H. (1932). The Cambridge History of India: The Indian Empire, 1858-1918 (Vol. 6). Cambridge University Press.
- The History and Culture of the Indian People, 11 vols, ed. R. C. Majumdar. (1951)
Race, Caste and Tribe
- Crooke, William (1896). The tribes and castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh, Volume I. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
- Crooke, William (1896). The tribes and castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh, Volume II. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
- Crooke, William (1896). The tribes and castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh, Volume III. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
- Crooke, William (1896). The tribes and castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh, Volume IV. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
- Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. I (A and B). Madras: Government Press.
- Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. II (C to J). Madras: Government Press.
- Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. III (K). Madras: Government Press.
- Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. IV (K to M). Madras: Government Press.
- Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. V (M to P). Madras: Government Press.
- Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. VI (P to S). Madras: Government Press.
- Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. VII (T to Z). Madras: Government Press.
- Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay : an intellectual biography (2008) by Amiya Prosad Sen
- Bankimchandra Chatterjee (1977) by Subodh Chandra Sengupta
- Rulers of India series
- Lal, B. B. (2011). Piecing together: Memoirs of an archaeologist. New Delhi: Aryan Books International.
- Chakrabarty, D. (2016). The calling of history: Sir Jadunath Sarkar and his empire of truth.
- Nasrin, Taslima (1999). Amar meyebela - My girlhood. Calcutta: People's Book House.
- Rabindranath Tagore - A Biographical Study (1916) by Ernest Percival Rhys
- The Life and Work of Sir Jagadis C. Bose (1920) by Patrick Geddes
- Ramakrishna - His Life and Sayings (1916) by Friedrich Max Müller
- Fauja, S., & Talib, Gurbachan Singh (1996). Guru Tegh Bahadur: Martyr and teacher. Patiala: Punjabi University.
- The Life and Letters of Raja Rammohun Roy (1914) by Sophia Dobson Collet and Francis Herbert Stead (ed. Hem Chandra Sarkar)
- The Master as I Saw Him (1910) by Sister Nivedita
- Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye: The Biography of a Master Film-Maker (1989) by W. Andrew Robinson (1, 2)
- The Life of Ramakrishna by Romain Rolland
- The Springing Tiger (1959) by Hugh Toye
- Sarkar, Jadunath (1981). History of Aurangzib. Orient Longman.
- Sarkar, Jadunath (2012). Shivaji and his times. Orient Longman.
- Keshub Chunder Sen: a search for cultural synthesis (1977) by Meredith Borthwick
- Partner in Empire: Dwarkanath Tagore and the Age of Enterprise in Eastern India (1976) by Blair B. Kling
- A poet apart: a literary biography of the Bengali poet Jibanananda Das, (1899-1954) (1990) by Clinton B. Seely
- Recritiquing Rabindranath Tagore (2006) by Samiran Kumar Paul, Amar Nath Prasad
- M.N. Roy: A Political Biography (1997) by Samaren Roy
- The father of modern India: Commemoration volume of the Rammohun Roy centenary celebration, 1933 (1935) by Rammohun Roy Centenary Committee
- India's First Communist (1988) by Samaren Roy
- Rao, S. R. (2008). Reminiscences of an archaeologist. New Delhi: Aryan Books International.
- The Twice-born Heretic, M.N. Roy and Comintern (1986) by Samaren Roy
- Vidyasagar: The Life and After-life of an Eminent Indian (2014) by Brian A. Hatcher
- Rabindranath Tagore – The man and his poetry (1915) by Basanta Koomar Roy (1915: 1; 1916: 2)
- The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore by (1919) by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
- Biography on Great Warrior Shreenath Mahadji Shinde By Neelesh Ishwarchandra Karkare
- Brothers Against the Raj: A Biography of Indian Nationalist Leaders Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose (1990) by Leonard A. Gordon
- Isvar Chandra Vidyasagar, a story of his life and work (1902) by Subal Chandra Mitra
- Chaitanya's Life and Teachings by Jadunath Sarkar (1922): translation of Chaitanya Charitamrita (1582) of Krishnadas Kaviraj
- Netaji: Rediscovered (2010) by Kanailal Basu
- The Man Who Knew Infinity (1991) by Robert Kanigel
- The Life of Vivekananada and the Universal Gospel by Romain Rolland
- Majumdar, R. C. (1967). Svami Vivekananda: A historical review. Calcutta: General Printers & Publishers.
- Samsad Bangali Charitabhidhan, ed. Subodh Chandra Sengupta
- Dictionary of National Biography 4 vols ed. Sibapada Sen
- The Indian Biographical Dictionary (1915) by C. Hayavadana Rao
- Dictionary of Indian biography (1906) by Charles Edward Buckland
- Who's Who in India Supplement 1 (1912)
- Who's Who in India Supplement 2 (1914)
- The Golden Book of India, a genealogical and biographical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire (1893) by Roper Lethbridge
- The Oriental Biographical Dictionary (1881) by Thomas William Beale
- Reminiscences and Anecdotes of Great Men of India by Ram Gopal Sanyal Vol 1 (1894), Vol 2 (1895)
- Who's who of Indian Writers, 1999: A-M
- Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, Volume 1
- Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, Volume 2
- Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, Volume 3
- Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, Volume 5
- Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Supplementary entries and index
- Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis (2013) by Kunal Chakrabarti, Shubhra Chakrabarti
Manuals and gazetteers
Main page: Manuals and gazetteers of India
- Early period
- Indica by Megasthenes, c. 300 BCE
- Fa, Hien (1877). "Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms" by Fa Hien (414 AD). Herbert A. Giles (trans.). London: Trubner & Co. , 414 CE
- Mundy, Peter. The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667.
- Faxian; tr. by James Legge (1886). A Record of Buddhistic kingdoms; being an account by the Chinese monk FA-HIEN of his travels in India and Ceylon, A.D. 399-414, in search of the Buddhist books of discipline. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, by Hiuen Tsang. 646 CE.
- Watters, Thomas (1904). On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, 629-645 A.D. London: Royal Asiatic Society.
- Sachau, Edward C. (1910). Alberuni's India — An account of ... India about A.D. 1030 (Vol. 1). London: Kegan Paul, Trench Trübner & Co.Ltd.
- Sachau, Edward C. (1910). Alberuni's India — An account of ... India about A.D. 1030 (Vol 2.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench Trübner & Co. Ltd.
- Majumdar, R. C. (1981). The Classical accounts of India: Being a compilation of the English translations of the accounts left by Herodotus, Megasthenes, Arrian, Strabo, Quintus, Diodorus, Siculus, Justin, Plutarch, Frontinus, Nearchus, Apollonius, Pliny, Ptolemy, Aelian, and others with maps. Calcutta: Firma KLM.
- Early modern period
- Tavernier, Jean Baptiste; Ball, Valentine (tr. from the Orig French Ed. 1676) (1899). Travels in India (Vol. 1). London: Macmillan & Co.,.
- Tavernier, Jean Baptiste; Ball, Valentine (tr. from the Orig French Ed. 1676) (1899). Travels in India (Vol. 2). London: Macmillan & Co.
- Herbert, William; William Nichelson; Samuel Dunn (1791). A New Directory for the East-Indies. London: Gilbert & Wright.
- Fraser, James Baillie (1820). Journal of a Tour through Part of the snowy range of the Himala Mountains, and to the sources of the rivers Jumna and Ganges. London: Rodwell and Martin.
- Bernier, Francois (1891). Travels in the Mogul Empire, A.D. 1656-1668. London: Archibald Constable.
- Meenakshi Jain, The India They Saw (co-edited with Sandhya Jain, 4 Volumes, Prabhat Prakashan), ISBN 8184301065, ISBN 8184301073, ISBN 8184301081, ISBN 818430109X.
- Later modern
- Hope, John (1863). The House of Scindia — A Sketch by John Hope. Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green, London.
- Prinsep, A.R.A., Val C. (1879). Imperial India — An artist's journals:Illustrated by numerous sketches taken at the courts of the principal chiefs in India. Chapman and Hall, London.
- Menon, P. Shungoonny (1879). A History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. Higginbotham & Co., Madras.
- Supplement to Who's Who in India — Containing lives and photographs of the recipients of honours on 12th December 1911. Newul Kishore Press, Lucknow. 1912.
- Autobiography of a Yogi, by Paramahansa Yogananda. 1946
- The Principal Upanishads, by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, 1953.
- The Spiritual Heritage of India by Swami Prabhavananda, 1962.
- Frawley, David (2014). How I became a Hindu: My discovery of Vedic dharma.
- Gautier, Francois (2008). The guru of joy: Sri Sri Ravi Shankar & the art of living. Carlsbad, Calif: Hay House.
- Shourie, Arun (2017), Two Saints: Speculations around and about Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Ramana Maharishi., Harper Collins.