Once the divisional general managers had submitted these preliminary reports, the central market researchstaff at corporate headquarters began to develop a more formal market assessment, examining theforthcoming budget year in detail and the following two years in more general terms. A sales forecast wasthen prepared for each division; and these forecasts were combined to create a forecast for the entirecompany.In developing division forecasts, the research staff considered several topics, including general economicconditions and their impact on customers, and market share for different products by geographic area.Fundamental assumptions were made as to price, new products, changes in particular accounts, new plants, inventory carryovers, forward buying, packaging trends, industry growth trends, weather conditions, and alternative packaging. Each product line, regardless of sixe, was reviewed in the samemanner.These forecasts were prepared at the head office in order to ensure that basic consumptions were uniformand that overall corporate sales forecasts were both reasonable and achievable. The completed forecastswere forwarded to their respective divisions for review, criticism, and fine-tuning.The divisional general managers then compiled their own sales forecasts from the bottom up, asking eachdistrict sales manager to estimate sales for the coming budget year. The district managers could requesthelp from the head office or the divisional staff but in the end assumed full responsibility for the forecaststhey submitted.All district sales forecasts were consolidated at the division level for review by the vice president for marketing, but no changes were made in a district’s forecast unless the district manager agreed. Likewise,once the budget had been approved, any changes had to be approved by all those responsible for that budget.This process was then repeated at the corporate level. When all the responsible parties were satisfied withthe sales budget, the figures became fixed objectives, with each district being held responsible for its own portion. The entire review and approval process had four objectives:1.To assess each division’s competitive position and formulate courses of action to improve upon it.2.To evaluate actions taken to increase market share or to respond to competitors’ activities.3.To consider undertaking capital expenditures or plant alterations to improve existing products or introduce new products.4.To develop plans to improve cost efficiency, product quality, delivery methods, and service.
After final approval at the divisional and corporate levels, the overall sales budget was translated into asales budget for each plant, broken down according to the plants from which the finished goods would beshipped. At the plant level, the sales budget was then categorized according to price, volume, and use.Once the sales numbers were estimated, each plant budgeted gross profit, fixed expenses and pretaxincome. Profit was calculated as the sales budget less budgeted variable costs (including direct material,direct labour, and variable manufacturing overhead-each valued at a standard rate) and the fixed overhead budget.
The plant manager was held responsible for this budgeted profit number even if actual sales fell below the projected level.
Cost standards and cost reduction targets were developed by the plant’s industrial engineering department,which also determined budget performance standards for each department, operation, and cost center within the plant-including such items as budgeted cost reductions, allowances for unfavorable variancesfrom standards, and fixed costs such as maintenance labor.
Jelaskanlah kelebihan dan kelemahan yang ada pada sistem perencanaan dan pengendalianVershire Company!Penyelesaian:a.
Pada tahun 1972 industri ini mengalami revolusi sejak pembuat aluminium memilihdua macam proses di mana selembar metal dimasukkan ke dalam cangkir yang dalamdan ditutup di bagian atas. Sehingga pada tahun 1996 mampu memproduksi lebih dari2.000 kaleng per menit, karena proses manufaktur telah lebih efisiensi.2.
Adanya batasan otorisasi pada manajer umum divisi. Manajer umum divisi memilikipengendalian penuh terhadap bisnis mereka dengan dua pengecualian: peningkatanmodal dan hubungan ketenagakerjaan, karena keduanya terpusat pada kantor pusat.3.
Adanya peninjauan ulang oleh staf penelitian di kantor pusat atas laporan persiapanyang diajukan oleh setiap manajer umum divisi. Laporan ini merupakan laporanpersiapan untuk menggabungkan ringkasan-ringkasan mengenai penjualan,pendapatan, dan permintaan modal untuk anggaran tahun berikutnya.4.
Adanya pembuatan anggaran berupa keuntungan kotor, pengeluaran tetap, danpendapatan sebelum pajak yang dilakukan oleh setipa pabrik. Keuntungan dihitungsebagai anggaran penjualan yang nilainya lebih kecil dari anggaran biaya tak terdugadan anggaran yang telah pasti.5.
Adanya peninjauan varians yang nilainya melebihi anggaran yang dilakukan olehmanajemen perusahaan, serta meminta manajer pabrik yang daerahnya belummemenuhi target untuk menjelaskan.6.
Adanya pengujian terhadap biaya tetap untuk mengetahui apakah pabrik tersebut telahmelaksanakan program-programnya, apakah pabrik telah memenuhi biaya anggaran,dan apakah hasilnya sudah sesuai dengan harapan.b.
Laporan yang diajukan oleh manajer umum divisi tidak diberikan secara rinci. Hal itudapat menimbulkan dugaan kecurangan yang dilakukan para staf manajer umum.2.
Tidak adanya perubahan dalam prediksi di tingkat area kecuali disetujui oleh manajerarea.