Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES
IntroductionBackground of the StudyReview of Literature and StudiesSynthesisTheoretical / Conceptual FrameworkResearch ParadigmStatement of the Problem / ObjectivesHypothesisSignificance of the StudyScope and Delimitation of the StudyDefinition of Terms
2 THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Chapter 1THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES
3 IntroductionThis part encapsulates the whole study or to put it more simply, what the study is all about. A good introduction is backed-up by a relevant/familiar related literature and studies that serve as a strong conceptual groundwork of the study. It represents the surrounding situations or problems that prompted the researcher to undertake the study.
4 Effective introduction shows the actual scenario related to the problem in focus. Good starters may be any of the following: relevant statistical data; an attention-grabbing expression or timely quotation, a personal experience, a piece of related information from literature and studies reviewed and others. The introductory statement must be eye-catching.
5 The issues relating to the investigation should be quoted or documented to encourage readers to read on. The study should also be recent. The last part of the study is a brief situational analysis to present information on the problem and what prompts the researcher to venture into such a study. The analysis attempts to show that the study is relevant and contributes to the existing fund of knowledge.
6 Background of the Study
This section is optional, the researcher explains the approach to be used/employed to solve the problem. The introduction usually ends with the last or closing paragraph stating the primary purpose of the study or the title of the thesis itself.There should be a theme in writing the background of the study. The theme serves an outline so that there is continuity of ideas. The theme is based on the important variables of the study, their scope, nature and characteristics.Furthermore, the presentation must be from macro to micro, sometimes known as the deductive approach to data presentation.
7 Review of Literature and Studies
Review of literature is composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related. Related studies, on the other hand, are studies, inquiries, or investigations already conducted to which the present proposed study is related or has some bearing or similarity.
8 The review of literature is divided into two parts: (1) Professional Literature and (2) Related Studies. All related ideas, concepts, theories and principles are to be reviewed to support the investigation. The term “related” in the title is deleted because all reviewed literature has significant relationships or have a direct bearing on the investigation.
9 Professional literature comes from published materials like books, journals, magazines, pamphlets, etc., while related studies are from unpublished materials like theses, research reports and dissertations. Some writers prefer to review the literature first before framing the introduction, theoretical framework, statement of the problem, scope, delimitation and research methodology.
10 Advantages: It helps the researcher look for possible theories, concepts or principles to support his investigation.It is essential in formulating a sound research problem or research title, hypotheses, assumptions, etc.It enlightens the researcher as to the direction of the study.
11 It proves that the study is researchable and possesses novelty.
It helps to identify the statistical instruments to be used in the study.It serves as a guide to writing the findings, conclusions and recommendations.
12 Characteristics: The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible.
Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased.Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study.Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them valid and reliable.Review materials must not be too few nor too many.
13 Sources: Primary Sources:
Books, encyclopedias, almanacs, and other similar references,Articles published in professional journals, magazines, periodicals, newspapers, and other publications.Manuscripts, monographs, memoirs, speeches, letters, and diaries.Unpublished theses and dissertations.
14 The Constitution, and laws and statutes of the land.
Bulletins, circulars, and orders emanating from government offices and departments, especially from the Office of the President of the Philippines and the Department of Education Culture and Sports, Commission on Higher Education Technical and Skills Development Authority and other academic government institutions.Records of schools, public and private, especially reports of their activities.Official reports of all kinds, educational, social, economic, scientific, technological, political, etc., from the government and other entities.
15 Secondary, and Tertiary Sources of Information:
ExperimentationFirs hand investigation: the interview and the questionnaireDoctoral dissertations and monographs in professional journalsLetters, diaries, and autobiographiesOriginal creative work in art and literature
16 Reports of governments and their agencies: national, regional, provincial, city and municipal
Annual reports of research foundations, universities, and corporationsNewspapersSecondary sources are the reports of a person who relates the testimony of an actual witness or, or participant in an event.
17 The writer of the secondary sources was not on the scene of the event, but merely reports what the person who was these said or wrote.Most history textbooks and encyclopedias are examples of secondary sources, for they are often several times removed from the original, firsthand account of events.
18 Tertiary sources are those compiled from, or based on, secondary source material.
Many textbooks are examples of third hand information.Since textbooks often have simplified treatment, concise entries, and broad coverage, they are considered acceptable reference tools.
19 The Mechanics of Note Taking:
Best (1981) classifies reading-reference notes under four principal categories:QuotationParaphraseSummaryEvaluation
20 Cards for note taking purposes vary in size
Cards for note taking purposes vary in size. There are 3” x 5” cards, 4”x 6” cards, and 5” x 8” cards.The researcher should select the size of the cards which is suitable for his purposes and needs.In the absence of cards, half sheets of typing paper may be used.
21 Methods for taking notes:
Skim the reference source before copying any notes.A bird’s-eye view is essential before one can decide what material to record and use.Selecting the most significant material is an art to be cultivated.
22 Use 4” x 6” cards. They are easily sorted by subject headings, and are large enough to include a reasonable amount of material.Some students prefer 5” x 8” cards, which are less convenient to carry but provide more space for notes.
23 File each note card under a definite topic or heading.
Place the subject heading at the top of the card for convenient filing.A complete bibliographic citation should be placed at the bottom of the note card.If a book has been used, the call number should be indicated to facilitate library collection in the future.
24 Include only one topic on a card
Include only one topic on a card. This makes organization of notes flexible. If the notes are lengthy, use consecutively numbered cards, and slip a rubber band around them before filing.Be sure that notes are complete and clearly understandable, for they are not likely to be used for some time after they have been copied.Distinguish clearly between a summary, a direct quotation of the author, a reference to the author’s source, and an evaluative statement.
25 Don’t plan to recopy or type your notes
Don’t plan to recopy or type your notes. It wastes time and increases possibility of error and confusion. Copy your notes carefully the first time.Keep a supply of note cards with you at all times, so that you can jot down ideas that come to you while waiting, riding the bus, or listening to a lecture or discussion.
26 Be careful not to lose your notes
Be careful not to lose your notes. As soon as they are copied, file them in a card index box. If you must carry them with you, use the 4” x 6” or 5” x 8” accordion file folder, and be sure that your name and address is clearly printed on it.Keep a permanent file of your notes. You may find the same notes useful in a number of courses or in writing a number of reports.
27 Guide to Preparing the Review of Literature
For the review of literature you may need to visit a number of libraries for articles related to your investigation.At the library, look into the card catalogs for titles of articles, books, monographs and documents. Write the call numbers of these materials, and if necessary, ask the help of the librarian.
28 Index cards can help you organize your materials.
On these cards, write the names of authors, titles of the books, sources, year of publication, publisher and place of publication.If the materials are unpublished indicate authors, titles, and classify if thesis or dissertation, the college or university where the study was made, year and page, etc.
29 Author: Juan Dela Cruz Publisher: ISPSC Press
Book: Educational Planning Dev’t. Place: Ilocos SurPage: 312 – Year: 2001____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Author: Juan Dela Cruz Year: 2003Type: M.A. Thesis Pages:College/University: Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State UniversityPlace: Tagudin, Ilocos Sur
30 Refrain from copying entire chapters without proper documentation or acknowledgements. Plagiarism is punishable by law.If you are a third party, you need to acknowledge the original author and the second party if you include their views, findings and articles in your study.Make a related study on the needs and relevance of your investigation.
31 If you wish to combine professional and related studies, make a theme of your review based on the important variables of the study.A thematic approach to writing a review of related literature makes it logical, systematic and convenient to the researcher.
32 Ways of Citing Related Literature and Studies:
By author or writerIn this method the ideas, facts, or principles, although they have the same meaning, are explained or discussed separately and cited in the footnote with their respective authors or writers.Examples:According to Enriquez (1981), praise helps much in learning…
33 By Topic.In this case, if different authors or writers have the same opinion about the same topic, the topic is discussed and cited under the names of the authors or writers. This is a summary of their opinions. This is to avoid separate and long discussion of the same topic.Examples:It has been found out that praise is an important aid in the learning of children (Enriquez, 1981).
34 Chronological.Related materials may also be cited chronologically, that is, according to the year were written. Materials which were written earlier should be cited first before those which were written later.This can be done especially when citation is author or written. If citation is by topic, chronological citation can be done in the footnote.
35 What to Cite:It should be emphasized that only the major findings, ideas, generalizations, principles, or conclusions in related materials relevant to the problem under investigation should be discussed. Generally, such findings, ideas, generalizations, principles, or conclusions are summarized, paraphrased, or synthesized.
36 Quoting a Material:A material may be quoted if the idea conveyed is so perfectly stated or it is controversial and is not too long. It is written single spaced with wider margins at the left and right sides of the paper but without any quotation marks.Example:Suppose the following is a quotation: said Enqiquez,“Praise is an important factor in children’s learning. It encourages them to study their lessons harder. Praise, however, should be given very appropriately”.
37 The Evaluation of Material:
Accuracy and DependabilityUp-to-dateSuitability for Specific RequirementsAuthorityScopeTreatment and StyleArrangementIllustrations, Tables and DiagramsAuthorPublisher
38 SynthesisThe review of related literature should conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications.This consists of 1 or 2 paragraphs which discuss in brief how similar or different the previously read and included literatures are to the current study.
39 Theoretical / Conceptual Framework
A research study should be supported with various theories and concepts, to show that the study is researchable on a scientific basis.The theories relative to the investigation provide directions on undertaking the study.The conceptual framework becomes the central theme, the focus, the main thrust of the body.It serves as a guide in conducting the investigation.
40 Theories are formulated after reviewing related literature.
In looking for theories, you must be organized and logical because you are gathering data for Chapter II (Review of Related Literature) of your study.From the review of related literature and studies, the researcher may formulate a theoretical scheme for his research problem.This scheme is a tentative explanation or theoretical explanation of the phenomenon or problem and serves as the basis for the formulation of research hypothesis.
41 After incorporating the theories and concepts, the conceptual framework is made.
These concepts are presented in the form of a paradigm or model showing the steps or processes to be used in the study.A paradigm is a diagrammatic representation of a conceptual framework.It depicts in a more vivid way what the conceptual framework wants to convey.
42 VariablesAre the conditions or characteristics that the experimenter manipulates, controls, or observes.Independent variables are the input variables; in descriptive research, they are not manipulated.They are the conditions or characteristics that the experimenter manipulates in his or her attempts to ascertain their relationship to observed phenomena.
43 Moderator variables are the secondary input variables, which affect or influence the independent variable.The dependent variable is the outcome of the study. They are the conditions or characteristics that appear, disappear, or change as the experimenter introduces, removes, or changes independent variables.
44 Research ParadigmThis part is presented in figure form as the model of the research study. The figure shows the interrelationships of the variables of the study: independent and dependent; variates and co-variates; Input-Process-Output (IPO);and in experimental studies: the pre-test/post-test and other researcher-made or crafted paradigm.
45 Statement of the Problem
After the title is approved, the statement of the main problem and sub-problems of the study may now be made.
46 Guidelines in formulating the general problem and the specific sub-problems or specific questions:
The major problem of the study can be stated by briefly pointing out the objectives, the subject and the coverage as well as the time frame.Specify the sub-problems of the main problems.Include all possible components under the sub-problems of the study.
47 State the sub-problems in either interrogative or declarative form
State the sub-problems in either interrogative or declarative form. If the study is experimental, it is advisable to state it in the declarative form.You should also have advance information on the instrument to be used for data gathering. This will help you prepare the methodology of the study.The statement of the problem must be brief, clear, specific and relevant.
48 Sources of Problems: Actual problems encountered.
Technological changes and curricular developments.The graduate academic experience.Consultation.Specialization.Analysis of an area of knowledge.Consideration of existing practices and needs.Repetition or extension of investigation.“Off-shoots” of studies under way.
49 HypothesisA hypothesis is a working guide in research, the expected outcome of the study.Hypothesis is defined as an “educated guess.”Hypotheses are based on the statement of the problem and sub-problems. The number of sub-problems is also the number of hypotheses in the study.A hypothesis is a suggested answer to the problem.It may be defined as an expectation about events based on generalizations of the assumed relationship between variables.
50 A hypothesis has the following characteristics:
It should conjuncture upon a relationship between two or more variables.It should be stated clearly and unambiguously in the form of a declarative sentence.It should be testable, that is, it should be possible to restate it in an operational form, which can then be evaluated based on data.
51 Types of Hypothesis:Null hypothesis. The use of the null hypothesis has become more common in research whether it be psychological, social, or educational.The reason for the use of the null hypothesis by researchers is that it is easier to disprove.
52 In using a null hypothesis, one assumes that no significant relationship or difference exists, after which the researcher seeks to ascertain the improbability of such null hypothesis. Alternative (or deductive) Hypothesis is considered the operational statement of the research hypothesis. Another type of hypothesis is the inductive hypothesis, which is based on observations of behavior.
53 Significance of the Study
There is a need to specify the direct beneficiaries of the study. Just like in the scope and delimitation of the study, its importance shall be pointed out especially to the end users to serve as a guide in identifying its value.
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