The Chinese Revolution of 1949
On October 1, 1949, Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong declared the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The announcement ended the costly full-scale civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang (KMT), which broke out immediately following World War II and had been preceded by on and off conflict between the two sides since the 1920’s. The creation of the PRC also completed the long process of governmental upheaval in China begun by the . The “fall” of mainland China to communism in 1949 led the United States to suspend diplomatic ties with the PRC for decades.
Communists entering Beijing in 1949.
The Chinese Communist Party, founded in 1921 in Shanghai, originally existed as a study group working within the confines of the First United Front with the Nationalist Party. Chinese Communists joined with the Nationalist Army in the Northern Expedition of 1926–27 to rid the nation of the warlords that prevented the formation of a strong central government. This collaboration lasted until the “White Terror” of 1927, when the Nationalists turned on the Communists, killing them or purging them from the party.
After the , the Government of the Republic of China (ROC) faced the triple threat of Japanese invasion, Communist uprising, and warlord insurrections. Frustrated by the focus of the Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek on internal threats instead of the Japanese assault, a group of generals abducted Chiang in 1937 and forced him to reconsider cooperation with the Communist army. As with the first effort at cooperation between the Nationalist government and the CCP, this Second United Front was short-lived. The Nationalists expended needed resources on containing the Communists, rather than focusing entirely on Japan, while the Communists worked to strengthen their influence in rural society.
During World War II, popular support for the Communists increased. U.S. officials in China reported a dictatorial suppression of dissent in Nationalist-controlled areas. These undemocratic polices combined with wartime corruption made the Republic of China Government vulnerable to the Communist threat. The CCP, for its part, experienced success in its early efforts at land reform and was lauded by peasants for its unflagging efforts to fight against the Japanese invaders.
Japanese surrender set the stage for the resurgence of civil war in China. Though only nominally democratic, the Nationalist Government of Chiang Kai-shek continued to receive U.S. support both as its former war ally and as the sole option for preventing Communist control of China. U.S. forces flew tens of thousands of Nationalist Chinese troops into Japanese-controlled territory and allowed them to accept the Japanese surrender. The Soviet Union, meanwhile, occupied Manchuria and only pulled out when Chinese Communist forces were in place to claim that territory.
In 1945, the leaders of the Nationalist and Communist parties, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong, met for a series of talks on the formation of a post-war government. Both agreed on the importance of democracy, a unified military, and equality for all Chinese political parties. The truce was tenuous, however, and, in spite of repeated efforts by U.S. General George Marshall to broker an agreement, by 1946 the two sides were fighting an all-out civil war. Years of mistrust between the two sides thwarted efforts to form a coalition government.
As the civil war gained strength from 1947 to 1949, eventual Communist victory seemed more and more likely. Although the Communists did not hold any major cities after World War II, they had strong grassroots support, superior military organization and morale, and large stocks of weapons seized from Japanese supplies in Manchuria. Years of corruption and mismanagement had eroded popular support for the Nationalist Government. Early in 1947, the ROC Government was already looking to the island province of Taiwan, off the coast of Fujian Province, as a potential point of retreat. Although officials in the Truman Administration were not convinced of the strategic importance to the United States of maintaining relations with Nationalist China, no one in the U.S. Government wanted to be charged with facilitating the “loss” of China to communism. Military and financial aid to the floundering Nationalists continued, though not at the level that Chiang Kai-shek would have liked. In October of 1949, after a string of military victories, Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the PRC; Chiang and his forces fled to Taiwan to regroup and plan for their efforts to retake the mainland.
The ability of the PRC and the United States to find common ground in the wake of the establishment of the new Chinese state was hampered by both domestic politics and global tensions. In August of 1949, the Truman administration published the “China White Paper,” which explained past U.S. policy toward China based upon the principle that only Chinese forces could determine the outcome of their civil war. Unfortunately for Truman, this step failed to protect his administration from charges of having “lost” China. The unfinished nature of the revolution, leaving a broken and exiled but still vocal Nationalist Government and Army on Taiwan, only heightened the sense among U.S. anti-communists that the outcome of the struggle could be reversed. The outbreak of the Korean War, which pitted the PRC and the United States on opposite sides of an international conflict, ended any opportunity for accommodation between the PRC and the United States. Truman’s desire to prevent the Korean conflict from spreading south led to the U.S. policy of protecting the Chiang Kai-shek government on Taiwan.
For more than twenty years after the Chinese revolution of 1949, there were few contacts, limited trade and no diplomatic ties between the two countries. , the United States continued to recognize the Republic of China, located on Taiwan, as China’s true government and supported that government’s holding the Chinese seat in the United Nations.
1. The causes of the Chinese Civil War
This extract is from Michael Lynch’s book, China from Empire to People’s Republic 1900 – 1949: The Chinese civil war part one
This extract is from Mao by Michael Lynch: The formation of the United Front
The readings below come from Causes, Practices and Effects of Wars by Keely Rogers and Jo Thomas: Long term and short term causes
Impact of the Japanese
ATL skills: Thinking Skills
1. Using your knowledge of the period of Chinese History from 1911 – 1927 answer the question “What caused the Chinese Civil War” in pairs by using the Thinking Routine: generate – sort – connect – elaborate
2. Switch your visible thinking with another pair and give them some specific feedback on their ideas. Use a different colour sticky note to give your feedback.
3. Read the following pdf about the causes of the Chinese Civil War. Use the Thinking Routine: Connect – Extend – Challenge to help you to understand it.
The Causes of the Chinese Civil War
ATL Skills: Communication
Complete the Essay scaffold to address the title: Examine the causes of the First Chinese Civil War in 1927.
2. The Course of the First Chinese Civil War (the end of the first United Front 1927 – the start of the second United Front 1937)
Read the following section from the textbook: The Course of the Chinese Civil War – Jiangxi Soviet and Long March
The Jiangsi Soviet 1927 – 1934 also known as The First Red State in China:
Michael Lynch The Jiangxi Soviet
Invasion of Manchuria by Japanese 1931
- Japanese established Manchukuo with Pu Yi as leader
- 1937 Japanese left Manchuria and attacked Beijing (start of 15 year war)
The Long March 1934 – 35
The Long March – Encyclopaedia Britannica
Michael Lynch The Long March
- Important for Mao’s rise to power
- Rebuilding of CCP after attacks by GMD
- Part of future party ‘mythology’
- Important turning point in the Civil War
Rise to Power of Mao – Authoritarian and Single Party State Leaders
The Long March – Causes, Practices and Effects of War
The Yanan Soviet 1935
Mistakes made by Chiang Kai Shek
- Failed to implement Sun Yat-sen’s Three Prinicples
- Failed to deal with the Japanese
- Poor treatment of the peasants
Leadership, ideology and policies of the GMD and CCP 1911 – 1937
1. work in pairs take one large sheet of paper divide it into two with a timeline in centre and CCP events on one side, GMD on other and common events in the middle
2. make a timeline to show the leadership changes and the key events of the time period including both united fronts summarize the ideology, summarize the policies for both Ideology and policies give specific examples.
3. The Second United Front 1937 – 1945
Michael Lynch The Xian Incident 1936
4. The Fifteen Year War between Japan and China 1931 – 1945
What was the impact of Japanese aggression on the domestic struggle for power?
15 Year War Manchuria Lynch
15 Year War Origins Lynch
15 Year War Sino – Japanese Lynch
15 Year War WW2 Lynch
5. The Second Chinese Civil War 1946 – 49
The Chinese Civil War resumed after the surrender of the Japanese. Make a table to show the key events in each of the three phases of the civil war and how they impacted the war.
|Date||Key Events||Impact on the civil war|
Civil War 1946 -9
The extract below are taken from Causes, Practices and Effects of Wars by Keely Rogers and Jo Thomas
The causes and events of the Chinese Civil War 1946 – 49
The reasons for the Nationalist defeat
The reasons for the Communist victory
This wikipedia site has a very good summary of the Chinese civil war:
The reading below is from the book Mao, The Unknown Story by Jung Chang:
The Russians in Manchuria and support for the CCP
The document below is from China: from Empire to People’s Republic 1900 – 1949 by Michael Lynch
6. Why did the CCP win the Chinese Civil War in 1949?
Causes, Practices and Effects of War – Why did the CCP win the Chinese Civil War in 1949?
Why did the CCP win the CCW in 1949? Lynch
7. How significant was foreign intervention in the Chinese Civil War?
Look at the role of these three foreign powers during the CCW 1927 – 1949 by completing the table below:
|Examples of assistance (weapon, money etc)||Examples of how the foreign assistance specifically impacted the CCW||Examples of how the foreign assistance lengthened the war or changed the outcome.||Analysis of significance|