Text Encoding Initiative Manuscript Descriptive Essay

TEI: Overview¶10.1 Overview

The msdescription module40 defines a special purpose element which can be used to provide detailed descriptive information about handwritten primary sources. Although originally developed to meet the needs of cataloguers and scholars working with medieval manuscripts in the European tradition, the scheme presented here is general enough that it can also be extended to other traditions and materials, and is potentially useful for any kind of inscribed artefact.

The scheme described here is also intended to accommodate the needs of many different classes of encoders. On the one hand, encoders may be engaged in retrospective conversion of existing detailed descriptions and catalogues into machine tractable form; on the other, they may be engaged in cataloguing ex nihilo, that is, creating new detailed descriptions for materials never before catalogued. Some may be primarily concerned to represent accurately the description itself, as opposed to the ideas and interpretations the description represents; others may have entirely opposite priorities. At one extreme, a project may simply wish to capture an existing catalogue in a form that can be displayed on the Web, and which can be searched for literal strings, or for such features such as titles, authors and dates; at the other, a project may wish to create, in highly structured and encoded form, a detailed database of information about the physical characteristics, history, interpretation, etc. of the material, able to support practitioners of quantitative codicology as well as librarians.

To cater for this diversity, here as elsewhere, these Guidelines propose a flexible strategy, in which encoders must choose for themselves the approach appropriate to their needs, and are provided with a choice of encoding mechanisms to support those differing degrees.

TEI: The Manuscript Description Element¶10.2 The Manuscript Description Element

The msDesc element will normally appear within the sourceDesc element of the header of a TEI-conformant document, where the document being encoded is a digital representation of some manuscript original, whether as an encoded transcription, as a collection of digital images (as described in 11.1 Digital Facsimiles), or as some combination of the two. However, in cases where the document being encoded is essentially a collection of manuscript descriptions, the msDesc element may be used in the same way as the bibliographic elements (bibl, biblFull, and biblStruct) making up the TEI element class model.biblLike. These typically appear within the listBibl element.

  • msDesc (manuscript description) contains a description of a single identifiable manuscript or other text-bearing object.

The msDesc element has the following components, which provide more detailed information under a number of headings. Each of these component elements is further described in the remainder of this chapter.

  • msIdentifier (manuscript identifier) contains the information required to identify the manuscript being described.
  • head (heading) contains any type of heading, for example the title of a section, or the heading of a list, glossary, manuscript description, etc.
  • msContents (manuscript contents) describes the intellectual content of a manuscript or manuscript part, either as a series of paragraphs or as a series of structured manuscript items.
  • physDesc (physical description) contains a full physical description of a manuscript or manuscript part, optionally subdivided using more specialized elements from the model.physDescPart class.
  • history groups elements describing the full history of a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • additional groups additional information, combining bibliographic information about a manuscript, or surrogate copies of it with curatorial or administrative information.
  • msPart (manuscript part) contains information about an originally distinct manuscript or part of a manuscript, which is now part of a composite manuscript.
  • msFrag (manuscript fragment) contains information about a fragment of a scattered manuscript now held as a single unit or bound into a larger manuscript.

The first of these components, msIdentifier, is the only one which is mandatory; it is described in more detail in 10.4 The Manuscript Identifier below. It is followed optionally by one or more head elements, each holding a brief heading (see 10.5 The Manuscript Heading), and then either one or more paragraphs, marked up as a series of p elements, or one or more of the specialized elements msContents (10.6 Intellectual Content), physDesc (10.7 Physical Description), history (10.8 History), and additional (10.9 Additional Information). These elements are all optional, but if used they must appear in the order given here. Finally, in the case of a composite manuscript (a manuscript composed of several codicological units) or a fragmented manuscript (a manuscript whose parts are now dispersed and kept at different places), a full description may also contain one or more msPart (10.10 Manuscript Parts) elements and msFrag (10.11 Manuscript Fragments) elements, respectively.

To demonstrate the use of this module, consider the following sample manuscript description, chosen more or less at random from the Bodleian Library's Summary catalogue ([180])

The simplest way of digitizing this catalogue entry would simply be to key in the text, tagging the relevant parts of it which make up the mandatory msIdentifier element, as follows:
<msDesc>
<msIdentifier>
<settlement>Oxford</settlement>
<repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
<idno>MS. Add. A. 61</idno>
<altIdentifier type="SC">
<idno>28843</idno>
</altIdentifier>
</msIdentifier>
<p>In Latin, on parchment: written in more than one hand of the 13th cent. in
   England: 7¼ x 5⅜ in., i + 55 leaves, in double columns: with a few coloured
   capitals.</p>
<p>'Hic incipit Bruitus Anglie,' the De origine et gestis Regum Angliae of
   Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monumetensis: beg. 'Cum mecum multa &amp; de
   multis.'</p>
<p>On fol. 54v very faint is 'Iste liber est fratris guillelmi de buria de ...
   Roberti ordinis fratrum Pred[icatorum],' 14th cent. (?): 'hanauilla' is written
   at the foot of the page (15th cent.). Bought from the rev. W. D. Macray on March
   17, 1863, for £1 10s.</p>
</msDesc>

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With a suitable stylesheet, this encoding would be as readable as the original; it would not, however, be very useful for search purposes since only shelfmarks and other identifiers are distinguished. To improve on this, one might wrap the paragraphs in the appropriate special-purpose first-child-level elements of msDesc and add some of the additional phrase-level elements available when this module is in use:
<msDesc>
<msIdentifier>
<settlement>Oxford</settlement>
<repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
<idno>MS. Add. A. 61</idno>
<altIdentifier type="SC">
<idno>28843</idno>
</altIdentifier>
</msIdentifier>
<msContents>
<p>
<quote>Hic incipit Bruitus Anglie,</quote> the <title>De origine et gestis
       Regum Angliae</title> of Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monumetensis): beg.
<quote>Cum mecum multa &amp; de multis.</quote> In Latin.</p>
</msContents>
<physDesc>
<p>
<material>Parchment</material>: written in more than one hand: 7¼ x 5⅜ in., i
     + 55 leaves, in double columns: with a few coloured capitals.</p>
</physDesc>
<history>
<p>Written in <origPlace>England</origPlace> in the <origDate>13th
       cent.</origDate> On fol. 54v very faint is <quote>Iste liber est fratris
       guillelmi de buria de ... Roberti ordinis fratrum Pred[icatorum],</quote> 14th
     cent. (?): <quote>hanauilla</quote> is written at the foot of the page (15th
     cent.). Bought from the rev. W. D. Macray on March 17, 1863, for £1 10s.</p>
</history>
</msDesc>

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Note that in this version the text has been slightly reorganized, but no actual rewriting has been necessary. The encoding now allows the user to search for such features as title, material, and date and place of origin; it is also possible to distinguish quoted material from descriptive passages and to search within descriptions relating to a particular topic (for example, history as distinct from material).
This process could be continued further, restructuring the whole entry so as to take full advantage of many more of the encoding possibilities provided by the module described in this chapter:
<msDesc>
<msIdentifier>
<settlement>Oxford</settlement>
<repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
<idno>MS. Add. A. 61</idno>
<altIdentifier type="SC">
<idno>28843</idno>
</altIdentifier>
</msIdentifier>
<msContents>
<msItem>
<author xml:lang="en">Geoffrey of Monmouth</author>
<author xml:lang="la">Galfridus Monumetensis</author>
<title type="uniform" xml:lang="la">De origine et gestis Regum Angliae</title>
<rubric xml:lang="la">Hic incipit Bruitus Anglie</rubric>
<incipit xml:lang="la">Cum mecum multa &amp; de multis</incipit>
<textLang mainLang="la">Latin</textLang>
</msItem>
</msContents>
<physDesc>
<objectDesc form="codex">
<supportDesc material="perg">
<support>
<p>Parchment.</p>
</support>
<extent>i + 55 leaves <dimensions scope="all" type="leaf"
unit="inch">
<height>7¼</height>
<width>5⅜</width>
</dimensions>
</extent>
</supportDesc>
<layoutDesc>
<layout columns="2">
<p>In double columns.</p>
</layout>
</layoutDesc>
</objectDesc>
<handDesc>
<p>Written in more than one hand.</p>
</handDesc>
<decoDesc>
<p>With a few coloured capitals.</p>
</decoDesc>
</physDesc>
<history>
<origin>
<p>Written in <origPlace>England</origPlace> in the <origDate notAfter="1300"
notBefore="1200">13th cent.</origDate>
</p>
</origin>
<provenance>
<p>On fol. 54v very faint is <quote xml:lang="la">Iste liber est fratris
         guillelmi de buria de <gap/> Roberti ordinis fratrum
         Pred<ex>icatorum</ex>
</quote>, 14th cent. (?): <quote>hanauilla</quote> is
       written at the foot of the page (15th cent.).</p>
</provenance>
<acquisition>
<p>Bought from the rev. <name key="MCRAYWD">W. D. Macray</name> on <date when="1863-03-17">March 17, 1863</date>, for £1 10s.</p>
</acquisition>
</history>
</msDesc>

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In the remainder of this chapter we discuss all of the encoding features demonstrated above, together with many other related matters.

TEI: Phrase-level Elements¶10.3 Phrase-level Elements

When the msdescription module is in use, several extra elements are added to the phrase level class, and thus become available within paragraphs and elsewhere in the document. These elements are listed below in alphabetical order:

  • catchwords describes the system used to ensure correct ordering of the quires making up a codex or incunable, typically by means of annotations at the foot of the page.
  • dimensions contains a dimensional specification.
  • heraldry contains a heraldic formula or phrase, typically found as part of a blazon, coat of arms, etc.
  • locus defines a location within a manuscript or manuscript part, usually as a (possibly discontinuous) sequence of folio references.
  • locusGrp groups a number of locations which together form a distinct but discontinuous item within a manuscript or manuscript part, according to a specific foliation.
  • material contains a word or phrase describing the material of which the object being described is composed.
  • watermark contains a word or phrase describing a watermark or similar device.
  • objectType contains a word or phrase describing the type of object being referred to.
  • origDate (origin date) contains any form of date, used to identify the date of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • origPlace (origin place) contains any form of place name, used to identify the place of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • secFol (second folio) marks the word or words taken from a fixed point in a codex (typically the beginning of the second leaf) in order to provide a unique identifier for it.
  • signatures contains discussion of the leaf or quire signatures found within a codex.

Within a manuscript description, many other standard TEI phrase level elements are available, notably those described in the Core module (3 Elements Available in All TEI Documents). Additional elements of particular relevance to manuscript description, such as those for names and dates, may also be made available by including the relevant module in one's schema.

TEI: Origination¶10.3.1 Origination

The following elements may be used to provide information about the origins of any aspect of a manuscript:

  • origDate (origin date) contains any form of date, used to identify the date of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • origPlace (origin place) contains any form of place name, used to identify the place of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.

The origDate and origPlace elements are specialized forms of the existing date and name elements respectively, used to indicate specifically the date and place of origin of a manuscript or manuscript part. Such information would normally be encoded within the history element, discussed in section 10.8 History. origDate and origPlace can also be used to identify the place or date of origin of any aspect of the manuscript, such as its decoration or binding, when these are not of the same date or from the same location as rest of the manuscript. Both these elements are members of the att.editLike class, from which they inherit many attributes.

The origDate element is a member of the att.datable class, and may thus also carry additional attributes giving normalized values for the associated dating.

TEI: Material and Object Type¶10.3.2 Material and Object Type

The material element can be used to tag any specific term used for the physical material of which a manuscript (or binding, seal, etc.) is composed. The objectType element may be used to tag any term specifying the type of object or manuscript upon with the text is written.

  • material contains a word or phrase describing the material of which the object being described is composed.
  • objectType contains a word or phrase describing the type of object being referred to.
These elements may appear wherever a term regarded as significant by the encoder occurs, as in the following examples:

<binding>
<p>Brown <material>calfskin</material>, previously with two clasps.</p>
</binding>

<support>
<p>
<material>Parchment</material>
<objectType>codex</objectType> with half <material>goat-leather</material>
   binding.</p>
</support>

TEI: Watermarks and Stamps¶10.3.3 Watermarks and Stamps

Two further elements are provided to mark up other decorative features characteristic of manuscript leaves and bindings:

  • watermark contains a word or phrase describing a watermark or similar device.
  • stamp contains a word or phrase describing a stamp or similar device.
These element may appear wherever a term regarded as significant by the encoder occurs. The watermark element is most likely to be of use within the support element discussed in 10.7.1.1 Support below. We give a simple example here:

<support>
<material>Rag
   paper</material> with <watermark>anchor</watermark> watermark
</support>

The stamp element will typically appear when text from the source is being transcribed, for example within a rubric in the following case:

<rubric>
<lb/>Apologyticu TTVLLIANI AC IGNORATIA IN XPO IHV
<lb/>SI NON LICET
<lb/>NOBIS RO
<lb/>manii imperii <stamp>Bodleian stamp</stamp>
<lb/>
</rubric>

It may also appear as part of the detailed description of a binding:

<binding>
<p>Modern calf recasing with original armorial stamp <stamp>with legend
<mentioned xml:lang="LA">Ex Bibliotheca J. Richard
       D.M.</mentioned>
</stamp>
</p>
</binding>

If, as here, any text contained by a stamp is included in its description it should be clearly distinguished from that description. The element mentioned may be used for this purpose, as shown above.

TEI: Dimensions¶10.3.4 Dimensions

The dimensions element can be used to specify the size of some aspect of the manuscript, and thus may be thought of as a specialized form of the existing TEI measure element.

  • dimensions contains a dimensional specification.
    typeindicates which aspect of the object is being measured. Sample values include: 1] leaves; 2] ruled; 3] pricked; 4] written; 5] miniatures; 6] binding; 7] box

The dimensions element will normally occur within the element describing the particular feature or aspect of a manuscript whose dimensions are being given; thus the size of the leaves would be specified within the support or extent element (part of the physDesc element discussed in 10.7.1 Object Description), while the dimensions of other specific parts of a manuscript, such as accompanying materials, binding, etc., would be given in other parts of the description, as appropriate.

The following elements are available within the dimensions element:

  • height contains a measurement measured along the axis at right angles to the bottom of the written surface, i.e. parallel to the spine for a codex or book.
  • width contains a measurement measured along the axis parallel to the bottom of the written surface, i.e. perpendicular to the spine of a book or codex.
  • depth contains a measurement measured across the spine of a book or codex, or (for other text-bearing objects) perpendicular to the measurement given by the width element.
  • dim contains any single measurement forming part of a dimensional specification of some sort.

These elements, as well as dimensions itself, are all members of the att.dimensions class, which also inherits attributes from the att.ranging class. They all thus carry the following attributes:

  • att.dimensions provides attributes for describing the size of physical objects.
    scopewhere the measurement summarizes more than one observation, specifies the applicability of this measurement. Sample values include: 1] all; 2] most; 3] range
    extentindicates the size of the object concerned using a project-specific vocabulary combining quantity and units in a single string of words.
    unitnames the unit used for the measurement Suggested values include: 1] cm (centimetres) ; 2] mm (millimetres) ; 3] in (inches) ; 4] lines; 5] chars (characters)
    quantityspecifies the length in the units specified
  • att.ranging provides attributes for describing numerical ranges.
    atLeastgives a minimum estimated value for the approximate measurement.
    atMostgives a maximum estimated value for the approximate measurement.
    minwhere the measurement summarizes more than one observation or a range, supplies the minimum value observed.
    maxwhere the measurement summarizes more than one observation or a range, supplies the maximum value observed.

Attributes scope, min, and max are used only when the measurement applies to several items, for example the size of all leaves in a manuscript; attributes atLeast and atMost are used when the measurement applies to a single item, for example the size of a specific codex, but has had to be estimated. Attribute quantity is used when the measurement can be given exactly, and applies to a single item; this is the usual situation. In this case, the units in which dimensions are measured may be specified using the unit attribute, the value of which will normally be taken from a closed set of values appropriate to the project, using standard units of measurement wherever possible, such as cm, mm, in, line, char. If however the only data available for the measurement uses some other unit, or it is preferred to normalize it in some other way, then it may be supplied as a string value by means of the extent attribute.

In the simplest case, only the extent attribute may be supplied:

<width extent="6 cubit">six
cubits</width>

More usually, the measurement will be normalized into a value and an appropriate SI unit:

<width quantity="270" unit="cm">six cubits</width>

Where the exact value is uncertain, the attributes atLeast and atMost may be used to indicate the upper and lower bounds of an estimated value:

<width atLeast="250" atMost="300" unit="cm">six cubits</width>

It is often convenient to supply a measurement which applies to a number of discrete observations: for example, the number of ruled lines on the pages of a manuscript (which may not all be the same), or the diameter of an object like a bell, which will differ depending where it is measured. In such cases, the scope attribute may be used to specify the observations for which this measurement is applicable:
<height unit="line" scope="most"
atLeast="20"/>

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This indicates that most pages have at least 20 lines. The attributes min and max can also be used to specify the possible range of values: for example, to show that all pages have between 12 and 30 lines:
<height unit="line" scope="all" min="12"
max="30"/>

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The dimensions element may be repeated as often as necessary, with appropriate attribute values to indicate the nature and scope of the measurement concerned. For example, in the following case the leaf size and ruled space of the leaves of the manuscript are specified:
<dimensions type="ruled" unit="mm">
<height scope="most" quantity="90"
unit="mm"/>
<width scope="most" quantity="48" unit="mm"/>
</dimensions>
<dimensions type="leaves">
<height min="157" max="160" unit="mm"/>
<width quantity="105"/>
</dimensions>

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This indicates that for most leaves of the manuscript being described the ruled space is 90 mm high and 48 mm wide, while the leaves throughout are between 157 and 160 mm in height and 105 mm in width.
The dim element is provided for cases where some measurement other than height, width, or depth is required. Its type attribute is used to indicate the type of measurement involved:
<dimensions unit="cm">
<dim type="circumference" quantity="48"
unit="mm"/>
<height quantity="90" unit="mm"/>
</dimensions>

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The order in which components of the dimensions element may be supplied is not constrained.

TEI: References to Locations within a Manuscript¶10.3.5 References to Locations within a Manuscript

The locus and its grouping element locusGrp element are specialized forms of the ref element, used to indicate a location, or sequence of locations, within a manuscript.

  • locus defines a location within a manuscript or manuscript part, usually as a (possibly discontinuous) sequence of folio references.
    fromspecifies the starting point of the location in a normalized form, typically a page number.
    tospecifies the end-point of the location in a normalized form, typically as a page number.
    schemeidentifies the foliation scheme in terms of which the location is being specified by pointing to some foliation element defining it, or to some other equivalent resource.
  • locusGrp groups a number of locations which together form a distinct but discontinuous item within a manuscript or manuscript part, according to a specific foliation.
    schemeidentifies the foliation scheme in terms of which all the locations contained by the group are specified by pointing to some foliation element defining it, or to some other equivalent resource.

The locus element is used to reference a single location within a manuscript, typically to specify the location occupied by the element within which it appears. If, for example, it is used as the first component of a msItem or msItemStruct element, or of any of the more specific elements appearing within one (see further section 10.6 Intellectual Content below) then it is understood to specify the location (or locations) of that item within the manuscript being described.

TEI: Identifying a Location¶10.3.5.1 Identifying a Location
A locus element can be used to identify any reference to one or more folios within a manuscript, wherever such a reference is appropriate. Locations are conventionally specified as a sequence of folio or page numbers, but may also be a discontinuous list, or a combination of the two. This specification should be given as the content of the locus element, using the conventions appropriate to the individual scholar or holding institution, as in the following example:

<msItem n="1">
<locus>ff. 1-24r</locus>
<title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>

A normalized form of the location can also be supplied, using special purpose attributes on the locus element, as in the following revision of the above example:

<msItem n="1">
<locus from="1r" to="24r">ff. 1-24r</locus>
<title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>

When the item concerned occupies a discontinuous sequence of pages, this may simply be indicated in the body of the locus element:

<msItem n="1">
<locus>ff. 1-12v, 18-24r</locus>
<title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>

Alternatively, if it is desired to indicate normalized values for each part of the sequence, a sequence of locus elements can be supplied, grouped within the locusGrp element:

<msItem n="1">
<locusGrp>
<locus from="1r" to="12v">ff. 1-12v</locus>
<locus from="18" to="24r">ff. 18-24r</locus>
</locusGrp>
<title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>

If an existing catalogue is being transcribed and it is desirable to retain formatting of the reference (e.g. superscript or italic text) then the hi element may be used. If encoding multiple semantic divisions in a single location reference then a nested locus may be used to separate or annotate these.
Finally, the content of the locus element may be omitted if a formatting application can construct it automatically from the values of the from and to attributes:

<msItem n="1">
<locusGrp>
<locus from="1r" to="12v"/>
<locus from="18" to="24r"/>
</locusGrp>
<title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>

TEI: Linking a Location to a Transcription or an Image¶10.3.5.2 Linking a Location to a Transcription or an Image

The locus attribute can also be used to associate a location within a manuscript with facsimile images of that location, using the facs attribute, or with a transcription of the text occurring at that location. The former association is effected by means of the facs attribute; the latter by means of the target attribute.

The facs is available only when the transcr module described in chapter 11 Representation of Primary Sources is included in a schema. It associates a locus element with one or more digitized images, as in the following example:

<msItem>
<locus facs="images/08v.jpg images/09r.jpg images/09v.jpg images/10r.jpg images/10v.jpg">fols. 8v-10v</locus>
<title>Birds Praise of Love</title>
<bibl>
<title>IMEV</title>
<biblScope>1506</biblScope>
</bibl>
</msItem>

Here, the facs attribute uses a URI reference to point directly to images of the relevant pages. This method may be found cumbersome when many images are to be associated with a single location. It is of most use when specific pages are referenced within a description, as in the following example:

<decoDesc>
<p>Several of the miniatures in this section have been damaged and overpainted
   at a later date (e.g. the figure of Christ on <locus facs="http://www.example.com/images.fr#F33R">fol. 33r</locus>; the face of the
   Shepherdess on <locus facs="http://www.example.com/images.fr#F59V">fol.
     59v</locus>, etc.).</p>
</decoDesc>

For further discussion of the facs attribute, see section 11.1 Digital Facsimiles.
Where a transcription of the relevant pages is available, this may be associated with the locus element using its target attribute, as in the following example:

<msItem n="1">
<locus target="#f1r #f1v #f2r">ff. 1r-2r</locus>
<author>Ben Jonson</author>
<title>Ode to himself</title>
<rubric rend="italics">
<lb/> An Ode
<lb/> to him selfe.</rubric>
<incipit>Com leaue the loathed stage</incipit>
<explicit>And see his chariot triumph ore his wayne.</explicit>
<bibl>
<name>Beal</name>, <title>Index 1450-1625</title>, JnB 380</bibl>
</msItem>

<pb xml:id="f1r"/>

<pb xml:id="f1v"/>

<pb xml:id="f2r"/>

When (as in this example) a sequence of elements is to be supplied as target value, it may be given explicitly as above, or using the xPointer range() syntax defined at 16.2.4.6 range(). Note however that support for this pointer mechanism is not widespread in current XML processing systems.

The target attribute should only be used to point to elements that contain or indicate a transcription of the locus being described. To associate a locus element with a page image or other comparable representation, the global facs attribute should be used instead.

TEI: Using Multiple Location Schemes¶10.3.5.3 Using Multiple Location Schemes
Where a manuscript contains more than one foliation, the scheme attribute may be used to distinguish them. For example, MS 65 Corpus Christi College, Cambridge contains two fly leaves bearing music. These leaves have modern foliation 135 and 136 respectively, but are also marked with an older foliation. This may be preserved in an encoding such as the following:

<locus scheme="#original">XCIII</locus>
<locus scheme="#modern">135</locus>

Here the scheme attribute points to a foliation element providing more details about the scheme used, as further discussed in 10.7.1.4 Foliation below.
Where discontinuous sequences are identified within two different foliations, the scheme attribute should be supplied on the locusGrp element in preference, as in the following:

<locusGrp scheme="#original">
<locus>XCIII</locus>
<locus>CC-CCII</locus>
</locusGrp>
<locusGrp scheme="#modern">
<locus>135</locus>
<locus>197-204</locus>
</locusGrp>

TEI: Names of Persons, Places, and Organizations¶10.3.6 Names of Persons, Places, and Organizations

The standard TEI element name may be used to identify names of any kind occurring within a description:

  • name (name, proper noun) contains a proper noun or noun phrase.

As further discussed in 3.5.1 Referring Strings, this element is a member of the class att.canonical, from which it inherits the following attributes:

  • att.canonical provides attributes which can be used to associate a representation such as a name or title with canonical information about the object being named or referenced.
    keyprovides an externally-defined means of identifying the entity (or entities) being named, using a coded value of some kind.
    ref(reference) provides an explicit means of locating a full definition or identity for the entity being named by means of one or more URIs.
Here are some examples of the use of the name element:

<name type="person">Thomas Hoccleve</name>
<name type="place">Villingaholt</name>
<name type="org">Vetus Latina Institut</name>
<name type="person" ref="#HOC001">Occleve</name>

Note that the name element is defined as providing information about a name, not the person, place, or organization to which that name refers. In the last example above, the ref attribute is used to associate the name with a more detailed description of the person named. This is provided by means of the person element, which becomes available when the namesdates module described in chapter 13 Names, Dates, People, and Places is included in a schema. An element such as the following might then be used to provide detailed information about the person indicated by the name:

<person xml:id="HOC001">
<persName>
<surname>Hoccleve</surname>
<forename>Thomas</forename>
</persName>
<birth notBefore="1368"/>
<occupation>poet</occupation>

</person>

Note that an instance of the person element must be provided for each distinct ref value specified. For example, in the case above, the value HOC001 must be found as the xml:id attribute of some person element; the same value will be used as the ref attribute of every reference to Hoccleve in the document (however spelled), but there will only be one person element with this identifier.

Alternatively, the key attribute may be used to supply a unique identifying code for the person referenced by the name independently of both the existence of a person element and the use of the standard URI reference mechanism. If, for example, a project maintains as its authority file some non-digital resource, or uses a database which cannot readily be integrated with other digital resources for this purpose, the unique codes used by such ‘offline’ resources may be used as values for the key attribute. Although such practices clearly reduce the interchangeability of the resulting encoded texts, they may be judged more convenient or practical in certain situations. As explained in 3.5.1 Referring Strings, interchange is improved by use of tag URIs in ref instead of key.

All the person elements referenced by a particular document set should be collected together within a listPerson element, located in the TEI header. This functions as a kind of prosopography for all the people referenced by the set of manuscripts being described, in much the same way as a listBibl element in the back matter may be used to hold bibliographic information for all the works referenced.

When the namesdates module described in chapter 13 Names, Dates, People, and Places is included in a schema, similar mechanisms are used to maintain and reference canonical lists of places or organizations, as further discussed in sections 13.2.3 Place Names and 13.2.2 Organizational Names respectively.

TEI: Catchwords, Signatures, Secundo Folio¶10.3.7 Catchwords, Signatures, Secundo Folio

The catchwords element is used to describe one method by which correct ordering of the quires of a codex is ensured. Typically, this takes the form of a word or phrase written in the lower margin of the last leaf verso of a gathering, which provides a preview of the first recto leaf of the successive gathering. This may be a simple phrase such as the following:

<catchwords>Quires signed on the
last leaf verso in roman numerals.</catchwords>

Alternatively, it may contain more details:

<catchwords>Vertical catchwords in the hand of the scribe placed along the inner
bounding line, reading from top to bottom.</catchwords>

The ‘Signatures’ element is used, in a similar way, to describe a similar system in which quires or leaves are marked progressively in order to facilitate arrangement during binding. For example:

<signatures>At the bottom of the
first four leaves of quires 1-14 are the remains of a series of quire signatures
a-o plus roman figures in a cursive hand of the fourteenth century.</signatures>

The signatures element can be used for either leaf signatures, or a combination of quire and leaf signatures, whether the marking is alphabetic, alphanumeric, or some ad hoc system, as in the following more complex example:

<signatures>Quire and leaf
signatures in letters, [b]-v, and roman numerals; those in quires 10 (1) and 17
(s) in red ink and different from others; every third quire also signed with red
crayon in arabic numerals in the centre lower margin of the first leaf recto:
"2" for quire 4 (f. 19), "3" for quire 7 (f. 43); "4", barely visible, for quire
10 (f. 65), "5", in a later hand, for quire 13 (f. 89), "6", in a later hand,
for quire 16 (f. 113).</signatures>

The secFol element (for ‘secundo folio’) is used to record an identifying phrase (also called dictio probatoria) taken from a specific known point in a codex (for example the first few words on the second leaf). Since these words will differ from one copy of a text to another, the practice originated in the middle ages of using them when cataloguing a manuscript in order to distinguish individual copies of a work in a way which its opening words could not.

<secFol>(ando-)ssene in una villa</secFol>

TEI: Heraldry¶10.3.8 Heraldry

Descriptions of heraldic arms, supporters, devices, and mottos may appear at various points in the description of a manuscript, usually in the context of ownership information, binding descriptions, or detailed accounts of illustrations. A full description may also contain a detailed account of the heraldic components of a manuscript independently considered. Frequently, however, heraldic descriptions will be cited as short phrases within other parts of the record. The phrase level element heraldry is provided to allow such phrases to be marked for further analysis, as in the following examples:

<p>Ownership stamp (xvii cent.) on i recto with the arms <heraldry>A bull
   passant within a bordure bezanty, in chief a crescent for difference</heraldry>
[Cole], crest, and the legend <quote>Cole Deum</quote>.</p>

<p>A c. 8r fregio su due lati, <heraldry>stemma e imprese medicee</heraldry>
racchiudono l'inizio dell'epistolario di Paolino.</p>

TEI: The Manuscript Identifier¶10.4 The Manuscript Identifier

The msIdentifier element is intended to provide an unambiguous means of uniquely identifying a particular manuscript. This may be done in a structured way, by providing information about the holding institution and the call number, shelfmark, or other identifier used to indicate its location within that institution. Alternatively, or in addition, a manuscript may be identified simply by a commonly used name.

  • msIdentifier (manuscript identifier) contains the information required to identify the manuscript being described.

A manuscript's actual physical location may occasionally be different from its place of ownership; at Cambridge University, for example, manuscripts owned by various colleges are kept in the central University Library. Normally, it is the ownership of the manuscript which should be specified in the manuscript identifier, while additional or more precise information on the physical location of the manuscript can be given within the adminInfo element, discussed in section 10.9.1 Administrative Information below.

The following elements are available within msIdentifier to identify the holding institution:

  • country contains the name of a geo-political unit, such as a nation, country, colony, or commonwealth, larger than or administratively superior to a region and smaller than a bloc.
  • region contains the name of an administrative unit such as a state, province, or county, larger than a settlement, but smaller than a country.
  • settlement contains the name of a settlement such as a city, town, or village identified as a single geo-political or administrative unit.
  • institution contains the name of an organization such as a university or library, with which a manuscript is identified, generally its holding institution.
  • repository contains the name of a repository within which manuscripts are stored, possibly forming part of an institution.

These elements are all structurally equivalent to the standard TEI name element with an appropriate value for its type attribute; however the use of this ‘syntactic sugar’ enables the model for msIdentifier to be constrained rather more tightly than would otherwise be possible. Specifically, only one of each of the elements listed above may appear within the msIdentifier and they must, if present, appear in the order given.

Like name, these elements are all also members of the attribute class att.canonical, and thus can use the attributes key or ref to reference a single standardized source of information about the entity named.

The following elements are used within msIdentifier to provide different ways of identifying the manuscript within its holding institution:

Punctum delens is the name given to marks (usually a point, but also small x, underlining, or strikethrough) used to indicate deletion. Dots are also found above or below individual letters in several spelling systems, including Irish (where a raised dot often called a punctum delens was used to indicate lenition until the middle of the last century) and various transliteration systems for Arabic.

When used to indicate deletion, the punctum delens (and equivalent) represents the structural category deletion. Most markup languages (including strict XHTML 1.0/HTML 4.0, and TEI), therefore, do have a relevant element.

When used as part of a spelling system, the dot is either part of the “letter” in question, or a diacritic. In such cases, it is not a structural category and does not have a corresponding element in most structural markup languages. Representation in such cases is by Unicode.

Source documents

Print documents

The Punctum delens (and equivalent) is less common in print than in manuscript sources. The most common usage is probably in legal and electronic documents, including wordprocessor files, where strikethrough is often used to mark deleted text during the drafting stage. (Dots found above or below letters in spelling systems such as pre-mid-twentieth-century Irish and most Arabic transliteration systems are not (structurally speaking) true examples of the punctum; they should not be treated as deletion).

Manuscripts

The Punctum delens (and equivalent) is far more common in manuscript sources; indeed, if we extend the category to include scoring or any other mark of deletion, it is probably universal.

Structural encoding

Because Unicode has several dot-like diacritics, it is very easy (and tempting) to reproduce the punctum delens as a type-facsimile rather than in structural markup. This is a mistake, however: the punctum is properly speaking a feature of layout rather than orthography and hence only accidentally similar to the Unicode symbols. The correct way of encoding a “punctum” structurally is to use an element such as html:del or tei:del. Conversely, when the dot above or below a letter is part of the orthography of the language in question, it should be encoded in Unicode rather than structural markup.

(X)HTML

In Strict (X)HTML, deleted text in print or manuscript sources is encoded using the following structural element:

<del>: Deletion

Most visual commercial browsers render the this element by default using strikethrough. The appearance of this (and most other) elements can also be controlled by external (e.g. CSS) stylesheets. See below, [[#Stylesheets|Stylesheets].

TEI

In TEI XML (P4), text marked by a punctum (or equivalent) is commonly encoded using the following structural element:

[[<del>]]: Deletion

Most commercial browsers do not have a default stylesheet for this (or any other) TEI element. Its display characteristics therefore must be controlled by stylesheets, either directly (i.e. using a formatting stylelanguage such as CSS or XSL-FO), or indirectly, after conversion to XHTML for display.

Stylesheets

There is no fixed convention for representing the punctum delens in print transcriptions of medieval manuscripts. Because strikethrough is used widely in print to represent an equivalent structural category, however, this is probably the best bet for presentation. Underlining, which appears as a deletion mark in some manuscripts and has been used in the past in some print transcriptions is not recommended: this is used for insertion by in many legal documents and electronic texts. The construction of type-facsimiles using Unicode is not recommended.

CSS

Strikethrough (and underlining) in CSS is controlled by the font-decoration property. All textual elements can be assigned a value for this property. The relevant value for strikethrough is

line-through

Other permissable values include

overline underline blink

Example

del { text-decoration: line-through; }

XSLT

There is no relevant category in XSLT.

XSL-FO

(Unknown)

LaTeX

(Unknown)

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