General Assignment Charts Strikes Or Riots In St

Pullman Strike, (May 11, 1894–c. July 20, 1894), in U.S. history, widespread railroadstrike and boycott that severely disrupted rail traffic in the Midwest of the United States in June–July 1894. The federal government’s response to the unrest marked the first time that an injunction was used to break a strike. Amid the crisis, on June 28, President Grover Cleveland and Congress created a national holiday, Labor Day, as a conciliatory gesture toward the American labour movement.

The strike and boycott

In response to financial reverses related to the economic depression that began in 1893, the Pullman Palace Car Company, a manufacturer of railroad cars, cut the already low wages of its workers by about 25 percent but did not introduce corresponding reductions in rents and other charges at Pullman, its company town near Chicago, where most Pullman workers lived. As a result, many workers and their families faced starvation. When a delegation of workers tried to present their grievances about low wages, poor living conditions, and 16-hour workdays directly to the company’s president, George M. Pullman, he refused to meet with them and ordered them fired. The delegation then voted to strike, and Pullman workers walked off the job on May 11, 1894. As soon as the plant had emptied, company representatives posted signs at all the gates: “The works are closed until further notice.”

At the time of the strike, 35 percent of Pullman’s workforce was represented by the American Railway Union (ARU), which had led a successful strike against the Great Northern Railway Company the year before. Although the ARU was not technically involved in the Pullman workers’ decision to strike, union officials had been in Pullman and at the meeting at which the strike vote was taken, and Pullman workers undoubtedly believed that the ARU would back them. When the ARU gathered in Chicago in June for its first annual convention, the Pullman strike was an issue on the delegates’ minds.

A great deal of sympathy existed in Chicago and elsewhere for the Pullman workers, who were seen as common men and women tyrannized by an abusive employer and landlord. The question was how the ARU could support the workers, who, after all, did not exactly work on the railroads. One plan was to refuse to hitch Pullman cars to trains and to unhitch those that were already attached. Another idea was a boycott: ARU members would refuse to handle Pullman cars or any trains with Pullman cars until the railroads severed their ties with the Pullman Company.

On June 22 the ARU delegates passed a motion to initiate a boycott unless the Pullman Company agreed to submit the dispute to arbitration by June 26. During the next three days, several committees were sent to the company in the hope of winning concessions that would make the boycott unnecessary, but all were turned away.

Crucial to the success of any boycott would be the switchmen, who had joined the ARU in large numbers. The ARU’s president, Eugene V. Debs, predicted that, once the switchmen refused to add or remove Pullman cars from trains, the railroads would fire them and try to replace them with nonunion workers, and that in turn would lead other union members to walk out in solidarity, thus bringing more and more trains to a halt.

The scenario played out as Debs had predicted. On June 27, 5,000 workers left their jobs and 15 railroads were tied up. By the next day, 40,000 had walked off, and rail traffic was snarled on all lines west of Chicago. On the third day, the number of strikers had climbed to 100,000, and at least 20 lines were either tied up or completely stopped. By June 30, 125,000 workers on 29 railroads had quit work rather than handle Pullman cars. The ARU had few locals in the East or the Deep South, but the boycott seemed remarkably effective everywhere else.

Debs may have been pleased by the effectiveness of the boycott, but he was also alarmed by the anger expressed by the workers, which he feared could lead to violence. During the first week of the boycott he sent some 4,000 telegrams, hundreds every day, urging the ARU locals to stay calm and not to overreact.

On June 29 Debs spoke at a large and peaceful gathering in Blue Island, Illinois, to gather support from fellow railroad workers. After he left, however, groups within the crowd became enraged, set fire to nearby buildings, and derailed a locomotive. Unfortunately for the strikers, the locomotive was attached to a U.S. mail train. That greatly upset President Grover Cleveland in that the strike had now prevented the federal government from exercising one of its most-important responsibilities.

The injunction

Given that most members of the ARU were either on strike or actively helping the strikers, that other unions had joined the cause, and that wildcat strikes were breaking out against individual lines, violence may have been inevitable. Certainly Debs continued to urge restraint, but it was no use. When the sheriffs in Vermilion and Marion counties informed Illinois Governor John Peter Altgeld that they feared that local labour actions would spiral out of control, Altgeld sent six companies of militia to Danville at the beginning of July and another three to Decatur, with orders to quell any rioting and clear the way for the trains.

By early July, however, the federal government had already acted. In Washington, D.C., a majority of the president’s cabinet supported Attorney General Richard Olney’s demand that federal troops be sent to Chicago to end the “reign of terror.” On July 2 Olney obtained an injunction from circuit court judges Peter S. Grosscup and William A. Woods (both of whom had strong antiunion sentiments) that prohibited ARU leaders from “compelling or inducing” any employees of the affected railroads “to refuse or fail to perform any of their duties.” The injunction, which invoked both the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Act, also prevented ARU leaders from communicating with their subordinates. Thus, Debs, who had been trying to prevent violence, could no longer even send telegrams advising against it.

A federal injunction having been issued, President Cleveland could now treat the strike and boycott as a federal issue, and he ordered troops into Chicago on July 3. Governor Altgeld was outraged and immediately wired the president, saying, “Surely the facts have not been correctly presented to you in this case, or you would not have taken the step, for it seems to me unjustifiable.” Despite Altgeld’s repeated protests, Cleveland continued to send troops, even though the state militia seemed quite capable of handling the situation.

Worried that, given the terms of the injunction, he could no longer exercise any control over the strikers, Debs at first welcomed the troops, thinking that they might maintain order and allow the strike and boycott to proceed peacefully. But it soon became clear that the troops were not neutral peacekeepers; they were there to make sure that the trains moved, which would inevitably undermine the boycott.

The strikers reacted with fury to the appearance of the troops. On July 4 they and their sympathizers overturned railcars and erected barricades to prevent troops from reaching the yards. ARU leaders could do nothing, prevented by the injunction from any communication with the workers. On July 6 some 6,000 rioters destroyed hundreds of railcars in the South Chicago Panhandle yards.

By that time, there were some 6,000 federal and state troops, 3,100 police, and 5,000 deputy marshals in the city, but they could not contain the violence. On July 7 national guardsmen, after having been assaulted, fired into a mob, killing between 4 and 30 people and wounding many others. Debs then tried to call off the strike, urging that all workers except those convicted of crimes be rehired without prejudice. But the General Managers’ Association, the federation of railroads that had overseen the response to the strike, refused and instead began hiring nonunion workers. The strike dwindled, and trains began to move with increasing frequency until normal schedules had been restored. Federal troops were recalled on July 20. The Pullman Company, which reopened on August 2, agreed to rehire the striking workers on the condition that they sign a pledge never to join a union. By the time it ended, the ordeal had cost the railroads millions of dollars in lost revenue and in looted and damaged property, and the strikers had lost more than $1 million in wages.

The Pullman workers had also lost the sympathy of the public. The sheer size and ferocity of the disturbances—in which as many as 250,000 workers in 27 states had gone on strike, halted rail traffic, or rioted—inspired anxiety among many people. Harper’s Weekly magazine declared that the nation was “fighting for its own existence just as truly as in suppressing the great rebellion.” Farmers worried about getting their crops to market, and many others were concerned about the mail or about what the strike would do to the price and availability of goods. Congress supported Cleveland’s use of troops, and the mainstream press, in Chicago and elsewhere, turned against Debs, the union, and labour in general.

Court rulings

On July 7, at the height of the violence, federal officers arrested Debs and four other ARU leaders for contempt of court (for violating the injunction) and for criminal conspiracy to interfere with the U.S. mail; all five were soon released on a $10,000 bond. In December 1894 Debs and his codefendants were tried before Judge Woods, who found them in contempt and sentenced them to three to six months in prison (the conspiracy charge was withdrawn during the trial). Debs and the others remained free on bail, however, while their attorneys, who by now included Clarence Darrow, appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court on the grounds that the defendants had been denied their constitutional right to trial by jury in a criminal case (seeSixth Amendment). In May 1895 JusticeDavid J. Brewer delivered the unanimous (9–0) opinion of the court, which rejected Darrow’s argument and upheld the government’s use of the injunction against the strike (seeIn re Debs). The ARU leaders surrendered themselves at the McHenry County Jail in Woodstock, Illinois, in June 1895, and, while confined, Debs began his journey from labour activism to socialism.

Melvin I. UrofskyThe Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

The following is a list of specific strikes (workers refusing to work in an attempt to change their conditions in a particular industry or individual workplace, or in solidarity with those in another particular workplace) and general strikes (widespread refusal of workers to work in an organized political campaign on a broader national or international level).

Chronological list of strikes[edit]

Seventeenth century[edit]

Eighteenth century[edit]

Nineteenth century[edit]


1806Shoemakers' strikePhiladelphia, PennsylvaniaUnited States
1824Textile StrikePawtucket, Rhode IslandUnited States
1825House Carpenters' StrikeBoston, MassachusettsUnited States
1827Carpenters' StrikePhiladelphia, PennsylvaniaUnited States
1828Cocheco Mills StrikeDover, New HampshireUnited States
1828Textile StrikePaterson, New JerseyUnited States
1831Live in work, die in fightLyonFrance
1831Shoebinders' ProtestLynn, MassachusettsUnited States
1832Ship Carpenters' Ten-hour StrikeBoston, MassachusettsUnited States
1833Shoebinders' ProtestLynn. Massachusetts,United States
1833Textile ProtestManayunk, Pennsylvania,United States
1833Carpenters' StrikeNew York CityUnited States
1834Mill Women's StrikeLowell, MassachusettsUnited States
1834Textile ProtestManayunk PennsylvaniaUnited States
1835Carpenters StrikeBoston, MassachusettsUnited States
1835General StrikePhiladelphiaUnited States
1835Textile StrikePaterson, New JerseyUnited States
1836Mill Women's StrikeLowell MassachusettsUnited States
1836Tailors' StrikeNew York CityUnited States
1836Bookbinders' StrikePhiladelphiaUnited States
July 6, 1847Silk Workers protestsKashmirIndia
1848Copper Miners' StrikeBurra, South AustraliaAustralia


1850Tailors' StrikeNew York CityUnited States
1860Shoemakers' StrikeNew EnglandUnited States
1864Moonta Mines & Wallaroo Copper Miners' StrikeCopper CoastAustralia
1865Upper Peninsula miners' strikeMarquette, MichiganUnited States
1866Molders' LockoutUnited States
1869Collar Launderesses' StrikeTroy, New YorkUnited States
1872Shoe Workers' StrikeLynn MassachusettsUnited States
1874Tompkins Square RiotNew York CityUnited States
1874Sugar(wages)Strike RiotTerrebonne Parish LouisianaUnited States
1875Coal miners strikesUnited States
1877Great Railroad StrikenationwideUnited States[1]
1877Cigarmakers' StrikeNew York CityUnited States
1882Cotton Mill StrikeCohoes, New YorkUnited States
1883Cowboy StrikeUnited States
1883Tobacco Workers' StrikeLynchburg, VirginiaUnited States
1883Molders' LockoutUnited States
1884Textile StrikeFall River, MassachusettsUnited States
1884Union Pacific Railroad StrikenationwideUnited States
1885Cloakmakers' General StrikeUnited States
1885McCormick Harvesting Machine Company StrikeChicago, IllinoisUnited States
1885Southwest Railroad StrikenationwideUnited States
1885Carpet Weavers' StrikeYonkers, New YorkUnited States
1886Textile StrikeAugusta, GeorgiaUnited States
1886Cowboy StrikeGreat PlainsUnited States
1886Eight-Hour StrikesnationwideUnited States
1886McCormick Harvesting Machine Company StrikeChicago, IllinoisUnited States
1886Great Southwest Railroad StrikenationwideUnited States
1886Collar Launderesses' StrikeTroy, New YorkUnited States
1886Haymarket AffairChicago, IllinoisUnited States
1886Bay View TragedyMilwaukee, WisconsinUnited States
1887Longshoremens' StrikePort of New YorkUnited States
1887Sugar Cane Workers StrikeLafourche Parish, LouisianaUnited States
1888Burlington Railroad StrikeChicago, Burlington and Quincy RailroadUnited States
1888London matchgirls strike of 1888LondonUnited Kingdom
1888Cincinnati Shoemakers' LockoutCincinnati, OhioUnited States
1889London Dock StrikeLondon, EnglandUnited Kingdom
1889Baseball Players' RevoltnationwideUnited States
1889Fall River Textile StrikeFall River, MassachusettsUnited States
1890Southampton Dock StrikeSouthampton, EnglandUnited Kingdom
1890Carpenters' Strike for the Eight-Hour DaynationwideUnited States
1891Black Laborers' StrikeSavanna, GeorgiaUnited States
1891Coal Creek Miners' StrikeAnderson County, TennesseeUnited States
1892Homestead StrikeHomestead, PennsylvaniaUnited States
1892Buffalo switchmen's strikeBuffalo, New YorkUnited States
1892Coeur d'Alene labor strikeCoeur d'Alene, IdahoUnited States
1893Printers' strikenationwideSri Lanka
1894Coxey's Army marcheWashington D.C.United States
1894Cripple Creek miners' strikeCripple Creek, ColoradoUnited States
1894Pullman StrikePullman, ChicagoUnited States
1894Great Northern Railway StrikenationwideUnited States
1894Bituminous Coal Miners' StrikenationwideUnited States
1895Yaroslavl Great Manufacture strikeYaroslavl, Yaroslavl GovernorateRussian Empire
1895Shoe StrikeHaverhill, MassachusettsUnited States
1895Trolley Workers' StrikeBrooklyn, New YorkUnited States
1896Leadville Miners' StrikeLeadville ColoradoUnited States
1897Lattimer Massacre StrikeLattimer, PennsylvaniaUnited States
1888Shoe Workers' StrikeMarlboro, MassachusettsUnited States
1898South Wales Coal strikeWalesUnited Kingdom
1899Grain Shovellers' StrikeBuffalo, New YorkUnited States
1899Street Railway Workers' StrikeCleveland, OhioUnited States
1899Coeur d'Alene labor confrontationCoeur d'Alene, IdahoUnited States
1899Newsboys StrikeNew York CityUnited States
1899Russian student strikeSt. Petersburg UniversityRussian Empire

Twentieth century[edit]


  • Diamond Workers Strike (1900, Amsterdam)
  • St. Louis Streetcar Strike of 1900 (1900, U.S.)
  • Anthracite Coal Strike (1900, U.S.)
  • Machinists' Strike (1900, U.S.)
  • Penrhyn Quarry strike (1900) (1900–1903, Wales, UK)
  • Australian Workers strike (23rd Jan, 1900, Australia)
  • U.S. Steel Recognition Strike of 1901 (U.S.)
  • Machinists' Strike (1901, U.S.)
  • San Francisco Restaurant Workers' Strike (1901, U.S.)
  • Anthracite Coal Strike (1902, U.S.)
  • Chicago Teamsters' Strike (1902, U.S.)
  • Cripple Creek Colorado, Miners' Strike (1902, U.S.)
  • Colorado Labor Wars, Western Federation of Miners (1903–1904, U.S.)
  • Oxnard Strike of 1903 (U.S.)
  • Utah Coal Strike (1903, U.S.)
  • Fall River Textile Strike (1904) (July 25, 1904, U.S.)[2]
  • New York City Interborough Rapid Transit Strike (1904, U.S.)
  • Packinghouse Workers' Strike (1904, U.S.)
  • Santa Fe Railroad Shopmen's Strike (1904, U.S.)
  • Cananea Strike (1906, Sonora, Mexico)
  • Music Hall Strike of 1907 (London, UK)[3]
  • Belfast Dock Strike (1907, Ireland)
  • Goldfield Nevada, Miners' Strike (1907, U.S.)
  • Río Blanco strike (1907, Mexico)
  • San Francisco Streetcar Strike of 1907 (U.S.)
  • Pensacola streetcar operators' strike (1908, Pensacola, Florida, U.S.)
  • New York shirtwaist strike of 1909 "Uprising of the 20,000" (1909, U.S.)
  • Georgia Railroad Strike (1909, U.S.)
  • Pressed Steel Car Strike of 1909 (McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, U.S.)
  • Watertown Connecticut, Arsenal Strike (1909, U.S.)


  • Cradley Heath female chainmakers' strike (1910) [4]
  • 1910 New York cloakmakers strike, also known as "The Great Revolt" (1910, U.S.)
  • Westmoreland County coal strike of 1910–11 (U.S.)
  • Chicago garment workers' strike of 1910–1911 (U.S.)
  • 1911 Liverpool general transport strike (UK)
  • Illinois Central shopmen's strike of 1911 (U.S.)
  • 1911 Grand Rapids Furniture Workers (U.S.)
  • 1912 Lawrence textile strike, often known as the Bread and Roses Strike (1912, U.S.)
  • 1912 Little Falls textile strike (U.S.)
  • Waihi miners' strike (1912, Waihi, New Zealand)
  • Louisiana timber workers' strike (1912, U.S.)
  • Muscatine button workers' strike
  • Paint Creek–Cabin Creek strike of 1912 (U.S.)
  • Dublin strike and lockout (1913, Ireland)
  • Copper Country strike of 1913–14 (1913–14, U.S.)
  • Ludlow Massacre Strike (1913, U.S.)
  • Paterson silk strike (1913, U.S.)
  • 1913 New York City hotel workers' strike (U.S.)
  • 1913 Great Strike (1913, New Zealand)
  • Indianapolis streetcar strike of 1913 (U.S.)
  • 1913 Detroit automobile strike (U.S.)
  • Burston Strike School (1914–1939, UK)
  • 1915 Chicago garment workers' strike (U.S.)
  • Bayonne refinery strikes (1915 and 1916, U.S.)
  • Mesabi Range miners' strike (1916, U.S.)
  • BLE strike in New York City (1918, U.S.)
  • British police strikes in 1918 and 1919, (1918–19, UK)
  • Coal strike (1919, U.S.)
  • Lawrence (Mass.) textile strike (1919, U.S.)
  • Boston Police Strike (1919, U.S.)
  • 1919 Actors' Equity Association strike
  • Battle of George Square (1919, UK)
  • La Canadiense strike, (1919, Catalonia, Spain)
  • Steel strike of 1919 (U.S.)


  • Battle of Matewan (1920, U.S.)
  • Denver streetcar strike of 1920 (1920, U.S.)
  • 1920 Alabama coal strike (1920, U.S.)
  • Clothing Workers' Lockout (1920, U.S.)
  • Oahu Sugar Strike of 1920 (1920, U.S.)
  • Kronstadt Rebellion (1921, U.S.S.R.)
  • Battle of Blair Mountain (1921, U.S.)
  • Seamen's Strike (1921, U.S.)
  • Black Friday (1921) (UK)
  • Great Railroad Strike of 1922 (U.S.)
  • Herrin massacre (1922, U.S.)
  • Anthracite Coal Strike (1922, U.S.)
  • Bituminous Coal Strike (1922, U.S.)
  • Railroad Shopmen's Strike (1922, U.S.)
  • Portland Waterfront Strikes (1922, U.S.)
  • General strike of 1923
  • 1923 Victorian Police strike (Australia)
  • Hanapepe massacre (1924, U.S.)
  • Kashmiri Silk Workers 3rd Strike 1924
  • National builders' strike (UK, 1924)
  • National dock strike (UK, 1924)
  • Ammanford Anthracite Strike (1925, UK)
  • Anthracite Coal Strike (1925, U.S.)
  • Stripa Labour Conflict (Sweden, 1925)
  • Passaic New Jersey, Textile Strike (1926, U.S.)
  • 1926 United Kingdom general strike
  • Bituminous Coal Strike (1927, U.S.)
  • Columbine Mine Massacre Strike (1927, U.S.)
  • New Bedford Massachusetts, Textile Strike (1928, U.S.)
  • Banana massacre (1928, Colombia)
  • Tramway strike (1929, Sri Lanka)
  • 1929 Timber Workers strike (Australia)
  • Lupeni Strike of 1929 (Romania)
  • Rothbury Riot (1929, Australia)
  • Loray Mill Strike (Gastonia, North Carolina, Textile Strike) (1929, U.S.)


  • Imperial Valley California, Farmworkers' Strike (1929, U.S.)
  • Tampa cigar makers' strike (1931, U.S.)
  • Santa Clara Cannery Strike (1931, U.S.)
  • Ådalen shootings (1931, Sweden)
  • Harlan County War, Harlan County, Kentucky (1931, U.S.)
  • Invergordon Mutiny (1931, UK)
  • California Pea Pickers' Strike (1932, U.S.)
  • Century Airlines pilots' strike (1932, U.S.)
  • Davidson-Wiler Tennessee, Coal Strike (1932, U.S.)
  • Ford Hunger March Detroit Michigan (1932, U.S.)
  • Vacaville California, Tree Pruners' Strike (1932, U.S.)
  • Griviţa Strike of 1933 (Romania)
  • Briggs Manufacturing Company Strike (1933, U.S.)
  • California Farmworkers' Strike (1933, U.S.)
  • Detroit Michigan Tool and Die Strike (1933, U.S.)
  • New Mexico Miners' Strike (1933, U.S.)
  • Harlem New York, Jobs-for-Negroes-Boycott (1934, U.S.)
  • Kohler Strike, Sheboygan, Wisconsin (1934, U.S.)
  • 1934 New York Hotel Strike (1934, U.S.)
  • Imperial Valley California, Farmworkers' Strike (1934, U.S.)
  • Auto-Lite Strike (1934, Toledo, Ohio, U.S.)
  • Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934 (U.S.)
  • 1934 West Coast Longshore Strike (U.S.)
  • Rubber Workers' Strike (1934, U.S.)
  • United Fruit Banana Strike (1934, Costa Rica)
  • Textile workers Strike (1934) (U.S.)
  • NewarkStar-Ledger Strike (1934, U.S.)
  • Asturian miners' strike of 1934 (Spain)
  • General Strike (1934, Portugal)
  • General Strike (1934, Medellin, Colombia)
  • Osaka Kikai Kosakujo Strike (1934, Osaka, Japan)
  • Kylindromyloi Euangelistria Strike (1934, Kalamai, Greece)
  • Battle of Ballantyne Pier (1935, Canada)
  • Copperbelt strike (1935) (Zambia)
  • Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri Metal workers' strike (1935, U.S.)
  • Pacific Northwest Lumber Strike (1935, U.S.)
  • On-to-Ottawa Trek (1935)
  • Southern Sharecroppers' and Farm Laborers' Strike (1935, U.S.)
  • 1935 Gulf Coast longshoremen's strike (U.S.)
  • 1936 Syrian general strike (1936, Syria)
  • Arab general strike (Mandatory Palestine) (1936, Palestine)
  • Atlanta Georgia, Auto Workers' Sit-Down Strike (1936, U.S.)
  • Berkshire Knitting Mills Strike (1936, U.S.)
  • Flint Sit-Down Strike (1936, U.S.)
  • RCA Strike (1936, U.S.)
  • Gulf Coast maritime workers' strike (1936, U.S.)
  • Seattle Post-Intelligencer Newspaper Strike (1936, U.S.)
  • Rubber Workers' Strike (1936, U.S.)
  • S.S. California strike (1936, U.S.)
  • Remington Rand strike of 1936–1937 (U.S.)
  • Flint Sit-Down Strike General Motors (1936–1937, U.S.)
  • Hershey Pennsylvania, Chocolate Workers' Strike (1937, U.S.)
  • Little Steel Strike including Memorial Day massacre of 1937 (U.S.)
  • Lewiston-Auburn Shoe Strike (1937, Maine, U.S.)
  • London Bus Strike (1937, UK)
  • Chicago Newspaper Strike (1938, U.S.)
  • Maytag Strike (1938, U.S.)
  • Hilo Massacre (1938, Territory of Hawaii)
  • Chrysler Auto Strike (1939, U.S.)
  • Tool and Die Strike of 1939 (1939, U.S.)
  • Ford Motor Strike (1939, U.S.)
  • Disney animators' strike (1939, U.S.)


  • Downeys strike, the longest strike (March 1939 to November 1953, Dún Laoghaire, Ireland)[5]
  • Mooloya estate strike wave (1940, Sri Lanka)
  • Allis-Chalmers Strike (1941, U.S.)
  • Captive Coal Miners' Strike (1941, U.S.)
  • Detroit Michigan, Hate Strike against Black Workers (1941, U.S.)
  • February Strike (1941, Netherlands)
  • International Harvester Strike (1941, U.S.)
  • New York City Bus Strike (1941, U.S.)
  • North American Aviation Strike (1941, U.S.)
  • Quit India movement (1942, India)
  • 1942-43 musicians' strike (U.S.)
  • Bituminous Coal Strike (1943, U.S.)
  • Detroit Michigan, Hate Strike against Black Workers (1943, U.S.)
  • Detroit Michigan Race Riot (1943, U.S.)
  • Hollywood Black Friday (U.S.)
  • Philadelphia Transit Strike (1944, U.S.)
  • Port Chicago mutiny (1944, U.S.)
  • Kelsey-Hayes Strike (1945, U.S.)
  • Strike wave of 1946 (1945-1946, U.S.)
  • New York City Longshoreman's Strike (1945, U.S.)
  • Montgomery Ward Strike (1945, U.S.)
  • Oil Workers' Strike (1945, U.S.)
  • 1945 Swedish Metal Workers' Strike
  • African Mine Workers' Strike (1946, South Africa)
  • Bituminous Coal Strike (1946, U.S.)
  • Electrical Manufacturing Strike (1946, U.S.)
  • General Motors' Strike (1946, U.S.)
  • 1946 Montreal Cotton Strike (1946, Quebec, Canada)
  • Pittsburgh Power Strike (1946, U.S.)
  • 1946 Queensland meat industry strike (1946, Australia)
  • Railroad Strike (1946, U.S.)
  • Steel Strike (1946, U.S.)
  • 1946 Pilbara strike, (Western Australia)
  • The Great Hawaiian Sugar Strike of 1946 (Territory of Hawaii)
  • R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Strike (1947, U.S.)
  • Telephone Strike (1947, U.S.)
  • Workers Rights Strike (1948, Northern Cyprus)
  • Longshore Strike (1948, U.S.)
  • Boeing Strike of 1948
  • 1948 Queensland Railway strike (Australia)
  • Asbestos Strike (1949) Quebec, Canada
  • 1949 Australian coal strike (1949)
  • Hawaiian Dock Strike (1949, U.S.)
  • Carlyle Teachers Strike (1949, U.S.)


  • Atlanta transit strike of 1950 (U.S.)
  • "Salt of the Earth" Strike of New Mexico Miners (1950, U.S.)
  • General strike against Leopold III of Belgium
  • New Zealand waterfront strike (1951)
  • 1952 steel strike (1952, U.S.)
  • Louisiana Sugarcane Workers' Strike (1953, U.S.)
  • The Hartal of 1953 (1953, Sri Lanka)
  • Kohler Strike (1954, U.S.)
  • UNITE Strike (1955, U.S.)
  • Southern Telephone Strike (1955, U.S.)
  • The 1955 A.S.L.E.F. National Rail Strike (U.K) [6][7]
  • East Coast Longshoreman's Strike (1956, U.S.)
  • Steel Strike (1956, U.S.)
  • Hock Lee bus riots (1955, Singapore)
  • Musicians Union strike (1958, U.S.)
  • London Bus Strike (1958, UK)
  • Steel strike of 1959 (U.S.)


  • General Electric Strike (1960, U.S.)
  • Seamen's Strike (1960, U.S.)
  • 1960 Writers Guild of America strike (U.S.)
  • 1960–1961 Winter General Strike (Wallonia)
  • 1962 New York City newspaper strike (1962, U.S.)
  • East Coast Longshoreman's Strike (1962, U.S.)
  • Reesor Siding Strike of 1963 (Canada)
  • Florida East Coast Railway Strike (1963-1977, U.S.)
  • 1964 Mount Isa Mines Strike (1964–5, Australia)
  • Delano grape strike (1965–1970, U.S.)
  • 1966 New York City transit strike (U.S.)
  • Gurindji strike (1966, Australia)
  • St. John's University strike of 1966–67 (U.S.)
  • Hong Kong 1967 Leftist Riots
  • San Francisco Nurses Strike managed by the California Nurses Association 1966[8]
  • Railroad machinists' strike of 1967 (U.S.)
  • Copper Strike (1967, U.S.)
  • United Auto Workers strike of General Motors 1961 (U.S.)
  • Unofficial strikes by London dockers and meatpackers to protest at sacking of Enoch Powell from the Conservative Party's frontbench (April 1968).[9]
  • May 1968 in France
  • Memphis Sanitation Strike (1968, U.S.)
  • Chrysler wildcat strike (1968, U.S.)
  • New York City Teacher's Strike of 1968 (U.S.)
  • Florida statewide teachers' strike of 1968 (U.S.)
  • Charleston, South Carolina, Hospital Workers' Strike (1969, U.S.)
  • The National Rail Strike of June 24, 1968 (U.K.) [10]
  • Montreal Police Strike (1969, Canada) see also Murray-Hill riot
  • The President National Strike (1969, US)
  • Unofficial strike by mineworkers over pay of surface workers (1969, UK)[11]


  • Colour Strike (1970–1971, UK)
  • Strike at Pilkington glass works in St. Helens, UK (1970).[12] Inspired the film The Rank and File.
  • National Student Campus Strike (1970, U.S.)also related to Kent State Shootings (May, 1970, U.S.)
  • Salad Bowl strike (1970–1971, U.S.)
  • U.S. Postal Service strike of 1970 first U.S. nationwide strike of public employees
  • General Motors Strike (1970, U.S.)
  • 1971 NYPD Work Stoppage (1971, U.S.)
  • Longshore Strike (1971, U.S.)
  • 1971 United Kingdom postal workers strike (1971, UK)
  • Farrah Clothing Workers' Strike and Boycott (1972, U.S.)
  • Lordstown Ohio, Auto Workers' Strike (1972, U.S.)
  • Philadelphia Teachers' Strike (1972, U.S.)
  • 1972 Major League Baseball strike (U.S.)
  • UK building workers' strike (1972)
  • UK miners' strike (1972) (UK)
  • 1974 railway strike in India by 17 million workers of Indian Railways in 1974 (India)[13][14][15][16]
  • 1974 Washington Bus Strike
  • 1974 Baltimore teacher's strike, municipal workers' strike, and police strike (U.S.)
  • 1974 UPR strike
  • Bituminous Coal Strike of 1974 (U.S.)
  • Ulster Workers' Council Strike (1974, UK)
  • UK miners' strike (1974) (UK)
  • Washington Post Pressmen's Strike (1975, U.S.)[17]
  • Musician's Union Strike (1975, U.S.)
  • Japan National Railway Workers Union seven-days strike (1975, Japan)
  • Grunwick Dispute (1976–1977) London
  • Atlanta Sanitation Workers' Strike (1977, U.S.)[18]
  • Coors Beer Strike and Boycott (1977, U.S.)
  • J.P. Stevens Boycott (1977, U.S.)
  • Willmar Minnesota, Bank Workers' Strike (1977, U.S.)
  • International Longshoremen's Association (1977, U.S.)[19]
  • Bituminous Coal Strike of 1977–1978 (U.S.)
  • Norfolk & Western Railroad, Brotherhood of Railway and Airline Clerks (1978, U.S.)
  • Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania, Newspaper Strike (1978, U.S.)
  • 1978 New York City newspaper strike
  • Sudbury Strike of 1978 (Canada)
  • Winter of Discontent (1978–1979, UK)
  • Independent Truckers' Strike (1979, U.S.)
  • Art Strike 1977–1980
  • 1979 ITV strike
  • 1979 (June) ILWA 10-day contract strike, British Columbia, Canada[20]
  • Mexicana Airline strike (Huelga Aérea de Mexicana) (November 1–26, 1979, Mexico)[21]


  • 1980 General strike, Sri Lanka
  • 1980 British Steel strike by the Iron & Steel Trades Confederation and the National Union of Blastfurnacemen (January - April 1980)[22]
  • 1980 Swedish labour conflict
  • 1980 Chicago Fire Fighter Strike
  • 1980 New York City transit strike (April 1980, U.S.)
  • 1980 AFTRA/Screen Actors Guild strike (summer 1980, U.S.)
  • Gdańsk Shipyard Strike (August 1980, Poland)
  • Air traffic controllers' strike/Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (1981, U.S.)
  • Bydgoszcz events (March 1981, Poland)
  • 1981 UPR strike
  • 1981 Writers Guild of America strike (U.S.)
  • 1981 Major League Baseball strike (U.S.)
  • NHS strike (1982. UK)[23]
    • Solidarity strike by mineworkers in South Wales[23]
  • 1982 garment workers' strike (U.S.)[24]
  • Arizona Copper Mine Strike of 1983 (1983, U.S.)
  • Yale University Clerical Workers' Strike (1984, U.S.)
  • Battle of Orgreave (1984, UK)
  • Las Vegas Hotel Strike: Culinary, Bartenders, Stagehands and Musicians
  • UK miners' strike (1984–1985)
  • Cammell Laird Shipyard Occupation (1984, UK)
  • Hormel Meatpackers' Strike (1985, U.S.)
  • Los Angeles County Sanitary Workers' Strike (1985, U.S.)
  • Mudginberri dispute (1985, Northern Territory, Australia)
  • 1985 New York hotel workers strike [25]
  • Yale University Clerical Workers' Strike (1985, U.S.)[26]
  • Silentnight Furniture, Timber and Allied Trades Union strike at Barnoldswick (1985-1987, UK)[27]
  • Chicago Tribune Strike (1986, U.S.)
  • Dollar Sweets dispute (1986, Australia)
  • Guilford Transportation Industries railroad workers' strike (1986, U.S.)
  • Trans World Airlines Flight Attendants' Strike (1986, U.S.)
  • United States Steel Lockout (1986, U.S.)
  • Major Indoor Soccer League Lockout two-week lockout (1986, U.S.)
  • Wapping dispute (1986, UK)
  • Philadelphia Sanitary Workers' Strike (1986, U.S.)
  • ILWU Contract Strike (1986, British Columbia, Canada)
  • Bollywood Strike (1987, India)
  • The Great Workers' Struggle (1987, South Korea)
  • International Paper strike (1987, U.S.)
  • Professional Football Players' Strike (1987, U.S.)
  • 1987 NFL strike (U.S.)
  • National Broadcasting Company Employees Strike (1987, U.S.)
  • Metro Toronto Elementary Teacher's Strike (1987, Canada)
  • 1988 United Kingdom postal workers strike
  • 1988 VSEL Barrow in Furness strike (UK)
  • 1988 Writers Guild of America strike (U.S.)
  • 1988 Jai-Alai players (U.S.)
  • 1989 Australian pilots' strike
  • Eastern Airline Workers' Strike (1989, U.S.)
  • Bell Atlantic Strike (August 1989)
  • Nynex Strike (August 1989) lasted 4 months
  • Pittston Coal strike (1989–90, U.S.)


Twenty-first century[edit]


  • Verizon Strike (August 2000)
  • Jeffboat wildcat strike (2001, U.S.)
  • National Gallery of Canada 9-week strike (2001, Canada)
  • Actors Strike 2001
  • 2001 NFL referee lockout
  • UK Firefighter strike 2002
  • Euzkadi Strike (2002–2005, Mexico)
  • Alberta Teachers strike 2002[28]
  • University of California strikes (2003, U.S.)
  • Scottish Nursery Nurses Strike (2003)
  • 2003 Broadway Musicians Strike (U.S.)
  • 2003 June 15 Hospitality workers at the Congress Plaza Hotel.[29]
  • Southern California Supermarket strike of 2003–2004 (U.S)
  • 2004 CN Rail workers strike (Canada)
  • 2004 Nippon Professional Baseball strike
  • 2004–05 NHL lockout (U.S. and Canada)
  • Bolivian Gas War (2005)
  • 2005 Lakeside Packers Strike (Canada)
  • 2005 New York City transit strike
  • 2005 University of Puerto Rico strike (Puerto Rico, U.S.)
  • Dhaka strikes (2006, Bangladesh)
  • 2006 United Steelworkers strike (U.S. and Canada)
  • 2006 AK Steel Lockout (U.S.) (AEIF Locked out by employer 2600 members)
  • 2006 labor protests in France
  • 2006 Oaxaca protests (Mexico)
  • 2006 Progressive Enterprises dispute (New Zealand)
  • South Korean railroad strike of 2006
  • 2006 Toronto Transit Commission wildcat strike (Canada)
  • University of Miami 2006 custodial workers' strike (U.S.)
  • 2006–2007 Palace Casino Strike (Canada)
  • 2007 Freightliner wildcat strike (U.S.)
  • 2007 South African public servants' strike
  • 2007 Orange County transit strike (U.S.)
  • Hayward teachers strike (2007, U.S.)
  • 2007 General Motors strike (U.S.)
  • 2007 Chrysler Autoworkers strike (U.S.)
  • 2007 UK postal strikes
  • 2007 St. Petersburg Ford Motors Strike (Russia)[30]
  • 2007 United Space Alliance strike (U.S.)[31]
  • 2007 Broadway Stagehand Strike (U.S)
  • SEMCO Energy Gas Company Strike (2007, U.S.)
  • Port of Napier Strike (2007, New Zealand)
  • November 2007 strikes in France
  • German national rail strike of 2007
  • 2007 Pantex Security Guards Strike
  • 2007 South Africa miners' strike
  • 2007–2008 Cork players strike
  • 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike (U.S.)
  • 2007–08 CBS News writers strike
  • 2007–2008 Berlitz Japan Strike (Japan)[32]
  • 2008 Puerto Rico Teacher's Federation strike
  • 2008 British teacher's strike
  • 2008 Scottish Borders Council strike
  • 2008 University of California strike (U.S.)
  • 2008 American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings Inc. strike (U.S.)
  • 2008 Sundance Kabuki Cinema Sex in the City strike (U.S.)
  • United Kingdom council workers' strike (2008, UK)
  • 2008 Toronto Transit Commission strike (Canada)
  • 2008 Spanish truckers strike[33]
  • 2008 First Group bus strike (UK)
  • 2008 Sri Lankan train strike (Sri Lanka)
  • 2008 Indian communication workers' strike (India)
  • 2008 VIVA bus operators strike (Canada)
  • 2008 Bollywood strike[34]
  • 2008 Timmins Ont. "Met" Site strike (October)
  • Boeing Machinists Strike of 2008[35]
  • 2009 Lindsey Oil Refinery strikes
  • 2008–09 York University Strike (Canada)
  • 2009 City of Toronto inside and outside workers strike (Canada) [36]
  • Via Rail strike (Canada)
  • Art Strike Biennial, Alytus, Lithuania, August 2009
  • 2009 Leeds refuse workers strike
  • 2009 UK postal strikes
  • 2009 McMaster University Strike (Canada)


Frick's letter describing the plans and munitions that will be on the barges when the Pinkerton guards and County Sheriffs arrive to confront the strikers in the 1892 Homestead.
Bodies immediately after the Lena massacre of striking goldfield workers in 1912

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